Anatomy - Chapter 13 and 15
Which of the primary bronchi is larger in diameter?
Which of the primary bronchi is more horizontal?
Which of the primary bronchi is the most common site for lodging of a foreign object that has entered the respiratory passageways?
Air enters the nasal cavity of the respiratory system through the ____.
The nasal cavity is divided by the midline ____.
Cleanse, warm, humidify
The major functions of the nasal cavity are to ____, _____, and ____ the incoming air.
Mucous membrane-lined cavities called ____ are found in several bones surrounding the nasal cavity.
Sinuses make the skull less heavy and probably act as resonance chambers for ____.
The passageway common to the digestive and respiratory systems, the ____, is often referred to as the throat.
The pharynx connects the nasal cavity with the ____ below.
Clusters of lymphatic tissue, ____, are part of the defensive system of the body.
Hyaline cartilage, pressure changes
Reinforcement of the trachea with ____ rings prevents its collapse during ___ changes that occur during breathing.
The fact that the rings are incomplete posteriorly allows a food bolus to bulge ____ during its transport to the stomach.
The larynx or voice box is built from many cartilages, but the largest is the ____ cartilage.
Vocal folds, speak
Within the larynx are the ____, which vibrate with exhaled air and allow the individual to ____.
Smallest conducting respiratory passageways
Separates the oral and nasal cavities
Major nerve, stimulating the diaphragm
Food passageway posterior to the trachea
Closes of the larynx during swallowing
Actual site of gas exchanges
Pleural layer covering the thorax walls
Pleural layer covering the lungs
Lumen of larynx
Fleshy lobes in the nasal cavity which increase its surface area
With the exception of the stroma of the lungs, which is ____ tissue, the lungs are mostly air spaces, of which the alveoli comprise the greatest part.
The bulk of the alveolar walls are made up of squamous epithelial cells, which are well suited for their ____ function.
Surfactant, reduce surface tension
Much less numerous cuboidal cells produce a fluid that coats the air-exposed surface of the alveolus and contains a lipid-based molecule called ____ that functions to ____ of the alveolar fluid.
The left lung has ____ lobes.
The right lung has ____ lobes.
In healthy lungs, it is always lower than atmospheric pressure
Pressure of air outside the body
As it decreases, air flows into the passageways of the lungs
As it increases over atmospheric pressure, air flows out of the lungs
If this pressure becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure, the lungs collapse
Rises well over atmospheric pressure during a forceful cough
Pressure inside the lungs
Pressure in the pleural cavity
Pressure out side of the body
When air cannot squeeze out of lungs
Smooth out the basic rhythm of breathing set by the medulla
Respiratory control center in the medulla
Stretch receptors in the lungs
Respond to overinflation of the lungs
Respond to decreased oxygen levels in the blood
Nerves that carry activating impulses to the muscles of inspiration
Lack or cessation of breathing
Normal breathing in terms of rate and depth
Labored breathing or "air hunger"
Chronic oxygen deficiency
Condition characterized by fibrosis of the lungs and an increase in size of the alveolar chambers
Condition characterized by increased mucus production, which clogs respiratory passageways and promotes coughing
Respiratory passageways narrowed by bronchiolar spasms
Chronic Bronchitis, Emphysema
Together called COPD
Incidence strongly associated with cigarette smoking; outlook is poor
Infection spread by airborne bacteria; a recent alarming increase in drug users and AIDs victims
The kidney is referred to as an excretory organ because it excretes ____ wastes.
Electrolyte, Water, Acid-base
The kidney is a major homeostatic organ because it maintains the ____, _____, and ____ balance of the blood.
Kidneys, ureters, peristalsis
Urine is continuously formed by the ____ and is routed down the ____ by the mechanism of ____.
Urine is stored in
The urine is conducted to the body exterior by the ____.
In males, the urethra is about ____ inches in length.
In females, the urethra is about ____ inches in length.
Tells kidneys to release water / lose water weight
Responsible for forming urine / functional units of the kidneys
Filtration, reabsorption, secretion
What are the three processes occurring in nephrons?
Amino acids or glucose
What two things should you never have in your urine?
Outside the abdominal cavity
The kidney (location wise) is...
Fibrous membrane, surrounding the kidney
Basinlike are of the kidney that is continuous with the ureter
Cuplike extension of the pelvis that drains the apex of a pyramid
Area of cortical tissue running through the medulla
Inside the cortex of the kidney / containing the column and pyramid
Area of the kidney that contains the greatest proportion of nephron structures
Striped-appearing structures formed primarily of collecting ducts