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76 terms

Anatomy - Chapter 13 and 15

STUDY
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Right
Which of the primary bronchi is larger in diameter?
Left
Which of the primary bronchi is more horizontal?
Right
Which of the primary bronchi is the most common site for lodging of a foreign object that has entered the respiratory passageways?
Nostrils
Air enters the nasal cavity of the respiratory system through the ____.
Nasal Septum
The nasal cavity is divided by the midline ____.
Cleanse, warm, humidify
The major functions of the nasal cavity are to ____, _____, and ____ the incoming air.
Sinuses
Mucous membrane-lined cavities called ____ are found in several bones surrounding the nasal cavity.
Sound
Sinuses make the skull less heavy and probably act as resonance chambers for ____.
Pharynx
The passageway common to the digestive and respiratory systems, the ____, is often referred to as the throat.
Larynx
The pharynx connects the nasal cavity with the ____ below.
Tonsils
Clusters of lymphatic tissue, ____, are part of the defensive system of the body.
Hyaline cartilage, pressure changes
Reinforcement of the trachea with ____ rings prevents its collapse during ___ changes that occur during breathing.
Anteriorly
The fact that the rings are incomplete posteriorly allows a food bolus to bulge ____ during its transport to the stomach.
Thyroid
The larynx or voice box is built from many cartilages, but the largest is the ____ cartilage.
Vocal folds, speak
Within the larynx are the ____, which vibrate with exhaled air and allow the individual to ____.
Bronchioles
Smallest conducting respiratory passageways
Palate
Separates the oral and nasal cavities
Phrenic nerve
Major nerve, stimulating the diaphragm
Esophagus
Food passageway posterior to the trachea
Epiglottis
Closes of the larynx during swallowing
Trachea
Windpipe
Alveoli
Actual site of gas exchanges
Parietal pleura
Pleural layer covering the thorax walls
Visceral pleura
Pleural layer covering the lungs
Glottis
Lumen of larynx
Conchae
Fleshy lobes in the nasal cavity which increase its surface area
Elastic connective
With the exception of the stroma of the lungs, which is ____ tissue, the lungs are mostly air spaces, of which the alveoli comprise the greatest part.
Gas exchange
The bulk of the alveolar walls are made up of squamous epithelial cells, which are well suited for their ____ function.
Surfactant, reduce surface tension
Much less numerous cuboidal cells produce a fluid that coats the air-exposed surface of the alveolus and contains a lipid-based molecule called ____ that functions to ____ of the alveolar fluid.
2
The left lung has ____ lobes.
3
The right lung has ____ lobes.
Intrapleural pressure
In healthy lungs, it is always lower than atmospheric pressure
Atmospheric pressure
Pressure of air outside the body
Intrapulmonary pressure
As it decreases, air flows into the passageways of the lungs
Intrapulmonary pressure
As it increases over atmospheric pressure, air flows out of the lungs
Intrapleural pressure
If this pressure becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure, the lungs collapse
Intrapulmonary pressure
Rises well over atmospheric pressure during a forceful cough
Intrapulmonary pressure
Pressure inside the lungs
Intrapleural pressure
Pressure in the pleural cavity
Atmospheric pressure
Pressure out side of the body
Black trachea
When air cannot squeeze out of lungs
Pons center
Smooth out the basic rhythm of breathing set by the medulla
Inspiratory center
Respiratory control center in the medulla
Stretch receptors in the lungs
Respond to overinflation of the lungs
Chemoreceptors
Respond to decreased oxygen levels in the blood
Intercostal, Phrenic
Nerves that carry activating impulses to the muscles of inspiration
Apnea
Lack or cessation of breathing
Eupnea
Normal breathing in terms of rate and depth
Dyspnea
Labored breathing or "air hunger"
Hypoxia
Chronic oxygen deficiency
Emphysema
Condition characterized by fibrosis of the lungs and an increase in size of the alveolar chambers
Chronic Bronchitis
Condition characterized by increased mucus production, which clogs respiratory passageways and promotes coughing
Asthma
Respiratory passageways narrowed by bronchiolar spasms
Chronic Bronchitis, Emphysema
Together called COPD
Lung cancer
Incidence strongly associated with cigarette smoking; outlook is poor
Tuberculosis
Infection spread by airborne bacteria; a recent alarming increase in drug users and AIDs victims
Nitrogenous
The kidney is referred to as an excretory organ because it excretes ____ wastes.
Electrolyte, Water, Acid-base
The kidney is a major homeostatic organ because it maintains the ____, _____, and ____ balance of the blood.
Kidneys, ureters, peristalsis
Urine is continuously formed by the ____ and is routed down the ____ by the mechanism of ____.
Urinary bladder
Urine is stored in
Urethra
The urine is conducted to the body exterior by the ____.
8
In males, the urethra is about ____ inches in length.
1 1/2
In females, the urethra is about ____ inches in length.
Diuretic
Tells kidneys to release water / lose water weight
Nephrons
Responsible for forming urine / functional units of the kidneys
Filtration, reabsorption, secretion
What are the three processes occurring in nephrons?
Amino acids or glucose
What two things should you never have in your urine?
Retroperitoneal
Outside the abdominal cavity
Retroperitoneal
The kidney (location wise) is...
Renal capsule
Fibrous membrane, surrounding the kidney
Renal pelvis
Basinlike are of the kidney that is continuous with the ureter
Calycas
Cuplike extension of the pelvis that drains the apex of a pyramid
Renal column
Area of cortical tissue running through the medulla
Renal medulla
Inside the cortex of the kidney / containing the column and pyramid
Renal cortex
Area of the kidney that contains the greatest proportion of nephron structures
Medullary pyramid
Striped-appearing structures formed primarily of collecting ducts