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AP Unit #5 Agriculture
Terms in this set (55)
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock.
the production of food primarily for sale away from the farm
farming in which only enough food to feed one's family is produced
deliberately planted and tended by humans that is genetically distinct from its wild ancestors as a result of selective breeding.
First Agricultural Revolution (neolithic)
Dating back 10,000 years, it achieved plant domestication and animal domestication.
farming system in the form of steps going up the mountain
The process of supplying water to areas of land to make them suitable for growing crops.
The largest population that the resources of an area can support
slash and burn agriculture
A farming method involving the cutting of trees, then burning them to provide ash-enriched soil for the planting of crops
also called slash and burn agriculture
The removal of trees faster than forests can replace themselves.
the gradual transformation of habitable land into desert
Second Agricultural Revolution
tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient
Third Agricultural Revolution
Currently in progress, the Third Agricultural Revolution has as its principal orientation the development of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)
Agricultural revolution that increased production through improved seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation.
Genetically modified organism made when DNA is removed from one organism and placed within the DNA of what can be a very different organism.
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area
clearing forests to plant fields for a few years and then abandoning them
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
Market Gardening (Truck Farming)
the growing of vegetables or flowers for a small market
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
wheat planted in the autumn and harvested in the early summer
Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer.
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
farming practices that involve putting relatively little energy into the land for the calories extracted
farming that requires a lot of labor to produce food
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
Growing two or more different crops at the same time on a plot.
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
the group of firms that make and deliver a given set of goods and services
A chain of activities from the manufacturing to the distribution of a product
the cultivation of a single crop in a given area.
Individuals who live in urban areas a great distance from their land and drive to the country to care for their crops and livestock. This practice lends itself well to the growth of wheat. Allows families to continue their long relationships with the ancestral farm
Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
Also called economic imperialism, this is the domination of newly independent countries by foreign business interests that causes colonial-style economies to continue.
fair trade movement
A movement designed to help workers in developing countries receive fair payments for their work.
A government payment that supports a business or market
the basic framework of a building or a system
Clustered rural settlement
A settlement within a rural area where everything is really close together.
Dispersed rural settlement
characterized by farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than alongside other farmers in settlements
a subdivision of a county that has its own government
French long-lot system
Linear settlements stretched out along a road or river.
Von Thunen Model
A model that explains the location of agriculture activities in a commercial, profit-making economy.
The same in all directions
The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
Bid Rent Curve/Bid Price Curve
As the distance from the city center increases, cost of land goes down; as the distance from the city decreases, cost of land goes up.
the ability to produce a good at a lower opportunity cost than another producer
A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
a type of food that is produced without pesticides, bio-engineering, or high-energy radiation
the cultivation of seafood
modern aquaculture, producing fish, shellfish, and other products
The number of different species in an area
grazing so heavily that the vegetation is damaged and the ground erodes
economies of scale
factors that cause a producer's average cost per unit to fall as output rises
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