AP US Gov supreme court cases
My modified version of another flashcard set
Terms in this set (63)
Gideon vs. Wainwright *
Right to a lawyer in a state trial, given by the 6th.
Roe vs. Wade *
This case used the implied right to privacy to restrict government interference with abortion.
Clinton vs. New York
This case ruled that the line-item veto violated the seperatin of powers doctrine.
West Virginia vs. Barnette
Overruled Minersville vs. Gobitis; ruled that states could NOT complet students to recite the pledge.
Minersville vs. Gobitis
The court ruled that states could compel students to recite the pledge at school even if it violated their religious beliefs.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
This case established the "seperate but equal" doctrine.
Brown vs. Board of Education *
This case overruled the "seperate but equal" doctrine.
Gibbons vs. Ogden *
Established a broad view of the commerce clause when a federal Steamboat license trumped a New York state license.
Civil Rights Cases
This post civil war decision stated that the 14th Amendment only outlawed government discrimination and could not stop PRIVATE businesses (theatres, hotels...) from discrimination.
Barron vs. Baltimore *
the 1833 decision holding that the bill of rights (Fifth Amendment) restrained only the national gov't, and NOT the states.
South Dakota vs. Dole
This case was a loss for state power when the Supreme Court upheld a law that withheld Federal Highway funds to states that did not have a 21 year old drinking age.
Scott vs. Sandford
Justice Taney's opinion in this case stated that slave owners could take their slaves anywhere in the U.S. and that slaves had no rights to be in federal court.
U.S. vs. Lopez *
The Court held that Congress had exceeded its commerce clause power by prohibiting guns in school.
Marbury vs. Madison *
Case in which the supreme court first asserted th power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional.
McCulloch vs. Maryland *
Court ruled that congress did have authority to charter bank, citing the necessary and proper clause.
Fletcher vs. Peck
John Marshall ruled against a state legislature that invalidated corrupt land sales in order to protect property rights.
Baker vs. Carr *
The Supreme Court ruling that all state districts must be equal in population., required that voting district needed to be reapportioned.
Reynolds vs. Sims
The Supreme Court ruling that all state districts must be equal in population.
Mapp vs. Ohio *
Incorporated a portion of the 4th Amendment by establishing that illegally obtained evidence cannot be used at trial, forbids unreasonable search and seizures.
Weeks vs. U.S.
The courts held that evidence obtained illegally by federal officers can not be used in the federal courts.
New Jersey vs. T.L.O.
The Fourth Amendment prohibition on unreasonable searches applies to schools and public school officials.
Engel vs. Vitale *
Cae that said organized prayer is unconstitutional in school.
Texas vs. Johnson *
Ruled that a person has a constitutional right to burn the american flag.
Miranda vs. Arizona *
Your rights must be read to you..., 5th, 6th and 14th amend. confession was illegally, must be warned prior that he has a right to remain silent and other rights that are given to you.
Furman vs. Georgia *
Limited the use of the death penalty based on the 8th Amendment.
Schneck vs. U.S. *
This speech was not constitutionally protected because it posed a "clear and present danger" to the country, thus creating the "clear and present danger" test to apply to First Amendment right of Speech.
Epperson vs Arkansas
The Court held that the Arkansas statute forbidding the teaching of evolution in public learning institutions was contrary to the freedom of religion mandate of the First Amendment, and was also in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Tinker vs. Des Moines *
Supreme Court case that stated that students do not lose their freedom of speech rights in high school. Students wore black arm bands to protest the Vietnam War.
New York Times vs. U.S.
The Government must strongly justify any abridgment of a newspaper's freedom of speech, as long as it does not threaten national security.
U.S. vs. Nixon
The Court decided that the President must hand over incriminating tapes because Presidential power is not above the law.
University of California Regents vs. Bakke *
Race may be taken into account when allowing students to higher education institutions as long as it is not the primary reason for allowing a student in.
Cruzan vs. Director , Missouri Department of Health
The Court found that a person did have a liberty interest under the Fourteenth Amendment to refuse medical treatment, provided there was "clear and convincing" evidence the person did not want artificial support to keep them alive.
Terry vs. Ohio
Allowed the police to stop and search a suspect if he has reasonable suspicion that the person has committed a crime.
Grutter vs. Bollinger
University of Michigan Law School admissions program that gave special consideration for being a certain racial minority did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment.
Buckley vs. Valeo *
The Court Upheld a federal law which set limits on campaign contributions, but ruled that spending money to influence elections is a form of constitutionally protected free speech, and struck down portions of the law.
New York Times vs. Sullivan
Court ruled that libelous statements made about public officials with actual malice is illegal.
Barron vs. Baltimore *
The 1833 decision holding that the bill of rights restrained only the national government, not states.
Griswold vs. Connecticut
A Connecticut law criminalizing the use of contraceptives violated the right to marital privacy. Under the due process clause of the 14th Amendment.
Everson vs. Board of Education
The Establishment Clause of the First Amendment is incorporated against the states. Government can not interfer with any Religious activities national or state level.
McCollum vs. Board of Education
The use of public school facilities by religious organizations to give religious instruction to school children violates the no-establishment-of-religion clause of the First Amendment.
Wisconsin vs. Yoder
School Attendance Law violated the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment because required attendance past the eighth grade interfered with the right of Amish parents to direct the religious upbringing of their children.
Gitlow vs. New York *
Incorporated 1st Amendment right of Free Speech to the states, using the 14th Amendment.
Betts vs. Brady
Case that denied counsel to indigent defendants when prosecuted by a state; overruled by Gideon vs. Wainwright.
Bush vs. Gore
The court ruled that manual recounts of presidential ballots in the Nov. 2000 election could not proceed because inconsistent evaluation statdards in different counties violated the equal protection clause.
Miller vs. California *
Court held that obscenity was not protected by the First Amendment and defined obscene material as those that the average person, applying contemporary community standards, find, taken as a whole, appeal to the prurient interest; that depict or describe, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined by applicable state law; and that, taken as a whole, lack serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.
Lemon vs. Kurtzman *
For a law to be considered constitutional under the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment, the law must have a legitimate secular purpose, must not have the primary effect of either advancing or inhibiting religion, and must not result in an excessive entanglement of government and religion.
Wesberry vs. Sanders
The Court decision saying districts must reflect population. 1 person = 1 vote.
koremastu v US
internment camps are legal
Dennis v US
Eugene Dennis, general secretary of the Communist Party USA, which found that Dennis did not have a right under the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to exercise free speech, publication and assembly, if that exercise was to overthrow the government.
abington v. schempp *
(1963) Prayer in classrooms was determined to be in violation of the First Amendment.
Heart of Atlanta motel v. US *
Civil Rights Act of 1964- Congress can prohibit discrimination in private businesses under interstate commerce
escobedo v Illinois
1964--Ruled that a defendant must be allowed access to a lawyer before questioning by police.
US v O'brian
4 young men burned their draft card to protest the war. The court convicted them of violating a federal law that makes that act a crime.
Brandenburg v. Ohio
extended freedom of speech to new limits. Threats of a KKK leader were deemed ok b/c of a failure to prove a real danger from them. Declared that speech is protected unless proven that actions directly incited the action
New york times v US *
Prior Restraint. Overruled Nixon's attempt to prevent publication of Vietnam documents
Hazelwood school district v kuhlmeier
schools may regulate school-sponsered newspapers not protected under the 1st amend
employment division v smith
State could deny unemployment benefits to a person fired for violating a state prohibition on the use a drug as a part of a religious ritual. Although states have the power to accommodate otherwise illegal acts done in pursuit of religious beliefs, they are not required to do so.
Webster v reproductive health services
allowed states to ban abortions from public hospitals and permitted doctors to test to see if fetuses were viable
oregon v smith
Drugs in religious observances, still illegal
adarand constructors v pena *
A Supreme Court ruling that states that federal programs that classify people based on race, even to help minorities, are unconstitutional.
Gratz v bollinger
Case in which Supreme Court held that University of Michigan's undergraduate admission program was not sufficiently "narrowly tailored" to consider race as a factor in admission decisions in order to achieve goal of a diverse student body.
district of columbia v heller
Second Amendment applies to private gun ownership, not just militias
Mcdonald v chicago
didn't overturn gun ban but lower courts have to decide