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AP Biology Chapter 53:Community Ecology
Terms in this set (35)
the number of different species in a community
how abundant one species is in comparison to another
The concept, put forth by H. A. Gleason, that a plant community is a chance assemblage of species found in the same area simply because they happen to have similar biotic requirements.
-hypothesis that the community is an assemblage of closely linked species, locked into association by mandatory biotic interactions that cause the community to function as an integrated unit-as a superorganism.
-the concept, put forth by Paul and Anne Ehrlich
-an increase or decrease in one species in a community affects many other species.
competition between members of different species b/c of shortage
competitive exclusion principle
two species so similar that they compete for the same limiting resources cannot coexist in the same place
The division of environmental resources by coexisting species such that the niche of each species differs by one or more significant factors from the niches of all coexisting species
the tendency for characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric(overlapping) populations of two species than in allopatric(isolated) populations of the same two species.
herbivory, carnivory, & parasitism
a passive defense that makes potential prey difficult to spot against its background
The bright coloration of animals with effective physical or chemical defenses that acts as a warning to predators
-Ex. "a skunk's aposematic coloration"
A type of mimicry in which a harmless species looks like a species that is poisonous or otherwise harmful to predators.
Evolution of two species, who both evolve similar patterns to ward off preditors.
A type of parasitism in which an insect lays eggs on or in a living host; the larvae then feed on the body of the host, eventually killing it
(ecology) a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
(ecology) a community of organisms where each member is eaten in turn by another member
feeding relationships between organisms
The concept that the length of a food chain is limited by the inefficiency of energy transfer along the chain.
dynamic stability hypothesis
The idea that long food chains are less stable than short chains.
those species in a community that are the most abundant or that collectively have the highest biomass
the total mass of living matter in a given unit area
single species that is not usually abundant in a community yet exerts strong control on the structure of a community by its ecological roles or niches
A model of community organization in which mineral nutrients control community organization because nutrients control plant numbers, which in turn control herbivore numbers, which in turn control predator numbers.
A model of community organization in which predation controls community organization because predators control herbivores, which in turn control plants, which in turn control nutrient levels
-also called the trophic cascade model.
tendency of a community to reach and control maintain equilibrium or relatively constant composition of species in the face of disturbances
describes most communities as constantly changing after being affected by disturbances
events that change communities, remove or destroy organisms from communities, or alter resource availability
gradual change in living communities that follows a disturbance
an ecological succession that begins in a an area where no biotic community previously existed
change following a disturbance that damages an existing community but leaves the soil intact
the variety of species living within an ecosystem
measure of biological diversity considering richness and relative abundance
the biodiversity pattern, first noted by Alexander von Humboldt, that illustrates that the larger the geographic area of a community, the greater the number of species.
the functional role and position of a species (population) within a community or ecosystem, including what resources it uses, how and when it uses the resources, and how it interacts with other populations
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