having a quality of cruelty relating to the Middle Ages
List the 5 medieval influences
always lived in shadows of Rome, Christianity, Germanic social structures and traditions, Byzantine models, and Islam
T/F- the Middle Ages and the Dark Ages were the same thing
List 3 major things that happened during the Middle Ages
education flourished, Europe wasn't all that isolated, commercial and cultural exchange remained
When were the Middle Ages?
between 400's and 1500's
transition in development of the western culture
king of the Franks
When was Clovis eleced?
Clovis and his successors
son of Pepin II
When did Charles defeat the Moors?
When did Charles die?
son and successor of Charles Martel
What was Pepin III's nickname?
Pepin the Short
When did Pepin III rule?
768- 814 (46 yrs)
When did pope Leo crown Charlemagne "Emperor of the Romans"?
What did his coronation represent?
his importance in western Europe
Louis the Pious
Charlemagne's only surviving son
When did Louis the Pious die?
nomads who settled in Hungary
barbarians from Scandanavia in the north
What was Charlemagne's favorite book?
"The City of God" by Saint Augustine
What was the main idea behind feudalism and manorialism?
they structured and organized European society in the Middle Ages
political system of local government based on the granting of land in return for loyalty, military assistance, and other services
Describe the feudal system
a powerful noble granted land to a lesser noble, actual ownership of the land remained with the noble who made the grant, the noble who recieved the grant was entitled to use of the land and its products, but could not "own" the land
the land granted to the lesser noble
the lesser lord who recieved the fief
the system of inheritance from father to eldest son
T/F- Wars were very common during the Middle Ages
T/F- The church tried to ban fighting on certain days such as weekends and holy days
List the 3 ways a person could be tried in the feudal system
trail by battle, compurgation (oath taking), or trial by ordeal
economic system in the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared land
T/F- Central authority and organized trade were existant during the Middle Ages
What was another term for peasants?
What was Chivalry?
the code of conduct for knights
List the 3 types of people in feudalism
those who pray, those who work, and those who fight
Who was the parish priest?
religious authority who held the lowest position in church hierarchy
What did the bishop do?
he managed a group of parishes called a diocese
a group of several diocese
Who managed an archdiocese?
a group of advisors who advised the pope
most important and powerful members of the curia
brought Christianity to Ireland in 432
led a group of monks to England
the churches code of law
the Catholic Churches punishment of a religion, involving closing churches and withholding sacrements
people who denied the truth of the churches principles
1/10 of Christian's income collected by the parish priest
the selling of indulgences
the search for heretics
List the 2 major steps in forming a nation
immergance of a centralized kingship, the organizations developed their own identity
When did William the Conqueror unite the islands and attack the Scots?
Who governed the shires?
1100- 1135, son of William, created the exchequer
handled the kingdom's finances
What major change did Henry II make in the feudal system?
he allowed vassals to stop sending knights to his aid ans instead pay a heavy tax (which allowed the crown to have a standing army)
What was the main idea during the struggle for power in England and France?
royal power gained supremacy over the power of the nobles in England and France during the Middle Ages
Which people group created shires?
Alfrd the Great
King of Wessex in 871
When did Alfred attack the Danes?
When did the Danes ask for peace?
Edward the Confessor
became king after the Danish line died in 1042, died without an heir in 1066
Archbishop of Canterbury
Why was Becket murdered?
because he refused to allow his clergy to be tried in royal court
Who murdered Becket?
4 of the king's knights
Eleanor of Aquitaine
wife of Henry II
written by a group of high-in-power nobles who disagreed with King John's demands
law based upon customs and judges' decisions, rather than upon written codes
Simon de Montfort
powerful lord who led the revolt in the 1260's which threatened the monarchy
When did the last Carolingian king die?
1272- 1307, one of England's greatest monarchs, divided the king's court into 3 branches
When did Hugh Capet become king?
How did Philip IV increase royal power over the French church?