47 terms

Biology Test 2: Part 3

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The source of all energy comes from where?
the sun
Energy from the sun is converted to chemical energy by?
photosynthesis
the reactions that break down the organic molecules are called?
oxidation reduction reactions
result in the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another
redox reactions
the loss of electrons from an atom
oxidation
the addition of electrons to an atom
reduction
if oxygen is the final receptor the process is called....?
aerobic
if the final electron acceptor is a molecule other than oxygen its called...?
anaerobic
what is the result of respiration?
ATP
What are the two electron carriers?
NAD and FAD
What do the electron carriers do?
deliver hydrogen
What are the three steps of oxidation reactions?
glycolysis, krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation
where does oxidative phosphorylation/ETC occur?
mitochondria
involves the breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen
cellular respiration
What is the main molecule of cellular respiration?
glucose
What is the formula for cellular respiration?
glucose + oxygen = CO2, H2O, ATP
glucose is broken down
glycolysis
Where is the majority of ATP made?
oxidative phosphorylation
Where does glycolysis occur?
cytoplasm
how many reactions are there in glycolysis?
10
What are the two phases of glycolysis?
energy investment, energy liberation
how many ATP are required in the energy investment phase?
2
what is yielded in the energy liberation phase of glycolysis?
4 ATP, 2 NADH
how many net ATPs are gained by glycolysis?
2
What is the main molecule in glycolysis?
pyruvate
What is the main molecule in the krebs cycle?
acetyl-CoA
How many times does the krebs cycle occur?
2
During the Krebs Cycle, pyruvate is transported by ___________ transport.
active
What are the products of the Krebs cycle?
2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2
What is/are the main molecules of the ETC?
NADH and FADH2
From each NADH that enters the ETC, how many ATPs are made?
3
From each FADH2 that enters the ETC, how many ATPs are made?
2
Does the ETC generate ATP directly?
no
chemicals moving down a concentration gradient
chemiosmosis
Once H+ is removed from the ETC, how can it get back in?
ATP synthase
Where are most of the H+ in the ETC?
outside
series of proteins in the mitochondria
ETC
What is the ATP yield of the whole cellular respiration cycle?
30
the end product feedbacks and inhibits an enzyme that catalyzes an early step in the pathway
feedback inhibition
the reactant activates an enzyme that catalyzes an early step in that pathway
positive feedback
protein is broken down into?
amino acids
fat is broken down into?
glycerol and fatty acids
nucleic acids are broken down into?
nucleotides
polysaccharides are broken down into?
glucose
What are the products of anaerobic respiration?
lactate or alcohol
Lactate fermentation results in how many ATP?
2 net ATP
in ethanol fermentation, it results in how many ATP?
2 net ATP
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