A Beka History 8. Chapter 5
Terms in this set (52)
Why did America need a "Great Awakening"?
Churches had grown cold. Many failed to preach the gospel and practiced a cold, formalistic Christianity. Many church-goers and even ministers were unconverted.
How did the requirement of church membership for political participation in New England lead to spiritual decline?
Because church membership was a requirement for political participation, many churches gave in to pressure from unconverted townsmen and allowed them to become church members without any evidence of conversion (as long as the unconverted member was a descendant of church members)—thus allowing them to participate in the political process. Instead of the church influencing the new members, the unconverted members influenced the church.
What were the revivals called in Britain? In America?
Evangelical Revival or Methodist Revival. Great Awakening
Besides his famous sermon, what was Jonathan Edwards remembered for?
being colonial America's foremost theologian and one of the greatest intellects our nation has ever produced
Why did George Whitefield begin preaching outdoors?
Many ministers in England disapproved of his evangelistic messages and barred him from their churches.
What were the results of the Great Awakening?
Thousands of sinners were converted, countless believers were revived, and scores of new churches were founded.
What did the Indians say about David Brainerd?
He "not only talk Jesus all the time. Him live Jesus all the time."
Which colleges were a direct result of the Great Awakening? Which one developed as a mission school for Indians?
Princeton, Dartmouth, Brown, and Rutgers. Dartmouth
Explain how the Great Awakening influenced education, religious freedom, and political freedom.
It spurred the founding of new colleges, it showed people that churches function best when they are kept free from government support and regulation, and it helped to hasten the development of political freedom as men saw that all people deserve equal justice under the law.
Between 1689 and 1763, what four wars were fought between Britain and France? How was the fourth war different?
King William's War, Queen Anne's War, King George's War, and the French and Indian War (Seven Years' War). The French and Indian War started in America and moved to Europe; all of the others started in Europe and moved to America.
Why did the Indians side with the French?
The French had cultivated strong ties of friendship and cooperation with the Indian tribes, and many Indians depended on the French fur trade.
What are the dates of the French and Indian War? What outcome would this war have on the future of North America?
1754-1763. It would decide the future of the North American continent by establishing once and for all the supremacy of English tradition and liberty in America.
Why were General Braddock's soldiers easy targets for the French?
They wore bright red and gold clothing, marched in neatly ordered rows, and announced their arrival with fife, drum, and bagpipe.
In what year did the tide turn in Britain's favor?
What was the French and Indian War called m other parts of the world?
the Seven Years'War
What fortress-city did the French retreat to? Who was the victor in the ensuing battle?
Quebec, the English
What spiritual revivals in America helped unite the colonists together in a spirit of unity?
How did colonial soldiers and British soldiers differ?
Whereas the colonial soldier fought to protect family and home, the British soldier fought for money; also, British soldiers could never achieve the rank of an officer.
What was the occupation of most colonial Americans?
What were the two fundamental errors of George III and his policy toward America?
He took out his frustrations with Parliament by lashing out against the colonies, and he appointed prime ministers who were determined to tax the colonies and violate colonial liberties.
Why had the British gone heavily into debt? What was Parliament's plan to finance the government?
from fighting the Seven Years' War. to tax Englishmen and colonists
Why did some colonists think the large British army remained in America?
to keep the colonists in subjection to the king rather than to protect them from the French
What would happen to the person who tried to evade the stamp tax? Why did the colonists resent this treatment?
He would be tried without a jury. They did not have the same protection as Englishmen in Britain
What was the meeting of representatives on October 7,1765, called? What did the representatives ask of the king?
the Stamp Act Congress, to defend their rights as Englishmen, to resist taxation without due representation, to restore their royal charters, which granted rep-resentative powers to the colonial assemblies, and to restore the land grants given to the original colonies.
English brothers who organized the Methodist denomination in England.
John and Charles Wesley
Congregational preacher of Massachusetts who helped spark the Great Awakening; preached "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God."
English evangelist who had the greatest impact on America during the Great Awakening; preached over 18,000 times.
Best-known missionary to the Indians.
First black woman poet in America.
Young colonial officer in the Virginia Rangers who led the militia in the French and Indian War.
Scotsman sent to America to lead British troops against the French.
General Edward Braddock
King of England who attempted to reduce Parliamentary power and bring the American colonies into subjection.
Prime minister who wanted to control the colonies; issued the Proclamation of 1763.
English statesman who fought for the colonists in Parliament; instrumental in the repeal of the Stamp Act.
William Pitt the Elder
Irish statesman who fought for the colonies in Parliament.
Fort captured from the British and fortified by the French; located on the heights of the upper Ohio River Valley.
Fort Duquesne (Fort Pitt)
An agreement in the mid-1600s among New England churches to grant membership to uncon-verted descendants of church members.
Evangelical revival of John and Charles Wesley in England.
Great revival of the American colonies in the early to mid-1700s.
The most famous sermon in American history; preached by Jonathan Edwards in 1741.
"Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"—
A unit of colonial militia that preserved law and order in the countryside and defended frontier posts from Indian attack.
1754-1763; war between the French with their Indian allies and the British with the colonial militia; called the Seven Years' War in Europe; British victory.
French and Indian War
Grenville's attempt to control the colonies by prohibiting colonial expansion beyond the Appalachian Mountains.
Proclamation of 1763
Parliament's tax which required the colonists to purchase a stamp (seal) for all legal documents.
Required colonists, when necessary, to supply and lodge British soldiers.
Meeting of nine colonies in New York to address the growing control and taxation of Britain.
Stamp Act Congress
Declaration of Parliament reminding the colonists that they were subordinate to England
—George Whitefield makes his first trip to America.
—Jonathan Edwards preaches "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God."
—French and Indian War
Stamp Act and Quartering Act
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