Make it Stick Summary Key Points

Memory palace
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Terms in this set (14)
Believes have consequences. If you thinkn you can't you can't, if you think you can, you can.

"Increase your abilities by tapping into the power of believe. Let's return to the old saw "If you think you can, or you think you can't, you're right."
If turns out there is more truth here than wit. Attitude counts for a lot. The studies of the psychologist Carol Dweck have gotten huge attention for showing just how big an impact one simple conviction can have on learning and performance: the belief that your level
of intellectual ability is not fixed but rests to a large degree in your own hands." (P197)

"You decide if you make mistakes or let mistakes make you."
Pay attention to why you think you have learned something:
Bad indicators of learning: Familiarity with the text, and ease of retrieval right after reading.

"Far better is to create a mental model of the material that integrates the various ideas across a text, connects them to what you already know, and enables you to draw inferences." (P126)

When learning feels harder don't resort to methods that feel easier but just give short term results. (Like rereading and massed pracitce)
#Learning should be like the bead on a string. Don't forget the knot!

"Retrieval ties the knot for memory."

((# A child stringing cranberries on a thread goes to hang them
on the tree, only to find they've slipped off the other end. Without
the knot, there's no making a string. Without the knot there's
no necklace, there's no beaded purse. [...]
Retrieval ties the knot for memory. Repeated retrieval snugs it
up and adds a loop to make it fast. P 28))

Repeated recall appears to help memory consolidate into
a cohesive representation in the brain and to strengthen and multiply the neural routes by which the knowledge can later be retrieved. P28-29
Regularly reflect to learn stronger
Reflection involves:

Retrieving from your mind, connecting with knowledge you already know, and rephrasing in your own words

((Reflection can involve several cognitive activities we have discussed that lead to stronger learning. These include retrieval (recalling recently learned knowledge to mind), elaboration (for example, connecting new knowledge to what you already know), and generation (for example, rephrasing key ideas in your own words or visualizing and mentally rehearsing what you might do differently next time).

A real life example to put that into practice: Retrieve the idea from your memory, think about sthg you can connect this new idea to and visualize yourself putting that idea into practice.))
Build mastery through testing"One of the best habits a learner can instill in herself is regular selfquizzing to recalibrate her understanding of what she does and does not know." (P21)MAKE IT STICK OVER THE LONG RUNMAKE IT STICK OVER THE LONG RUNUse interleaving to make it stick over the long run.With interleaving the short term results will be worse, but the long term results will be way better! That is also the reason why interleaved learning feels worse than massed practice # "When the baseball players at Cal Poly practiced curveball after curveball over fifteen pitches, it became easier for them to remember the perceptions and responses they needed for that type of pitch: the look of the ball's spin, how the ball changed direction, how fast its direction changed, and how long to wait for it to curve. Performance improved, but the growing ease of recalling these perceptions and responses led to little durable learning. It is one skill to hit a curveball when you know a curveball will be thrown; it is a different skill to hit a curveball when you don't know it's coming." (P81) The short term results will be worse when you practice interleaved compared to mast learning. But the long term effects will be way better. That is also the reason why interleaved learning feels worse than massed practice."Spaced practice is superior, massed practice inferiorSpaced practice with some forgetting in between leads to way better remembering. The more effort in recall, the better the learning. (("Spaced practice, which allows some forgetting to occur between sessions, strengthens both the learning and the cues and routes for fast retrieval when that learning is needed again, as when the pitcher tries to surprise the batter with a curveball after pitching several fastballs. The more effort that is required to recall a memory or to execute a skill, provided that the effort succeeds, the more the act of recalling or executing benefits the learning. Massed practice gives us the warm sensation of mastery because we're looping information through short term memory without having to reconstruct the learning from longterm memory. But just as with rereading as a study strategy, the fluency gained through massed practice is transitory, and our sense of mastery is illusory. It's the effortful process of reconstructing the knowledge that triggers reconsolidation and deeper learning." (P82)))