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Chapter 20&22 world civ.

STUDY
PLAY
anesthetic
drug used to prevent pain during surgery
enclosure
in england in the 1700's the process of taking over and fencing off public lands
smelt
melt in order to et the pure metal away from its waste matter
capital
money or wealth
factory
place in which workers and machines are brought together to produce large quantities of goods
turnpike
privately built road that charges a fee to travelers who use it
urbanization
movement of people from rural areas to cities
tenenment
multistory building divided into crowded apartments
labor union
workers' organization
utilitatianism
idea the the goal of society should be to bring out the greatest hapiness for the greatest number of people
socialism
system in which he people as a whole rather than private indivuals own all property and operate all businesses
means of production
farms, factories, railways, and other large businesses that produce and distribute goods
communism
form of socialism advocated by karl marx; according to marx, class struggle was inevitable and would lead to the creation of a classless society in which all wealth and property would be owned by the community as a whole
proletarial
working class
dynamo
machine used to generate electricity
interchangeable parts
identical compnents that can be used in place of one another in manufactoring
assembly line
production method that breaks down a complex job into a series of smaller tasks
stock
shares in a company
corporation
business owned by many investors who buy shares of stocks and risk only the amount of their investment
cartel
association of large corporations formed to fix prices set production quotas or divide up markets
germ theory
idea that certain microbes might cause specific infectous diseases
urban renewal
rebuilding of the poor areas of a city
mutual aid society
self help group setup to aid sick or injured workers
standard of living
measures the quality and availability of necessities and comforts in a society
cult of domesticity
idealization of women and the home
temperance movement
campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages
womens suffrage
right of women to vote
racism
belief that one racial group is superior to another
social gospel
movement of the 1800's that urged christians to do social service