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drug used to prevent pain during surgery


in england in the 1700's the process of taking over and fencing off public lands


melt in order to et the pure metal away from its waste matter


money or wealth


place in which workers and machines are brought together to produce large quantities of goods


privately built road that charges a fee to travelers who use it


movement of people from rural areas to cities


multistory building divided into crowded apartments

labor union

workers' organization


idea the the goal of society should be to bring out the greatest hapiness for the greatest number of people


system in which he people as a whole rather than private indivuals own all property and operate all businesses

means of production

farms, factories, railways, and other large businesses that produce and distribute goods


form of socialism advocated by karl marx; according to marx, class struggle was inevitable and would lead to the creation of a classless society in which all wealth and property would be owned by the community as a whole


working class


machine used to generate electricity

interchangeable parts

identical compnents that can be used in place of one another in manufactoring

assembly line

production method that breaks down a complex job into a series of smaller tasks


shares in a company


business owned by many investors who buy shares of stocks and risk only the amount of their investment


association of large corporations formed to fix prices set production quotas or divide up markets

germ theory

idea that certain microbes might cause specific infectous diseases

urban renewal

rebuilding of the poor areas of a city

mutual aid society

self help group setup to aid sick or injured workers

standard of living

measures the quality and availability of necessities and comforts in a society

cult of domesticity

idealization of women and the home

temperance movement

campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages

womens suffrage

right of women to vote


belief that one racial group is superior to another

social gospel

movement of the 1800's that urged christians to do social service

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