Foreign policy under FDR: he needs to keep an eye on ______, but he is reluctant because _________ ____ ____ _______ ______.
Europe; Americans don't like foreign policy
What is the Good Neighbor Policy?
adressed in 1933, Roosevelt trying to get a good relationship with Latin America says, in this document, that America will not interfere with its domestic affairs and engage in reciprocal exchange with Latin America. In order to be sure someone so close wasn't allying with an enemy.
Where was the Good Neighbor Policy agreed upon?
the Pan American conference in Uruguay, where the convention was signed that defined what a state (nation) had to be to qualify as a state.
In 1933 the US recognizes _________________ officially, why?
Soviet Union, to boost trade.
What is the Tydings-McDuffy Act (1934)
give Philippinos their freedom in 1946, although they'd been promised freedom since 1934.
The belief that people should glorify their nation and their race through an aggressive show of force.
What are the three points of European breakdown?
1. Italy--Benito Mussolini 2. Germany--Hitler gained control of German legislature in 1933 3. Japan--government becomes nationalist and militaristic in the 1920s and 1930s, they become aggressive.
What was ironic about Japan's forceful attacks on China in the 30s?
Japan lacked raw materials, so they would buy them from the US, but use these materials later on down the line to attack China.
What was the US (FDR) official response to the early stages of the War (Pre-PH)?
Pass Neutrality Acts (Roosevelt's fear...?) 1. forbid trade with countries at war 2. allowed president to prohibit citizens from traveling on ships of countries at war (the beligerent ships)
What was the Quarantine Speech
1937 speech by FDR, he said the US did not intend to get involved in Europe, but should use economic pressure as a response to eastern aggression.
What was Cash and Carry
a policy that would allow the US to give war materials to a country who could pay in cash and carry it out themselves, in order to keep US merchants safe, etc.
What was the suggested "destroyers for bases" plan?
US would give England the old battleships and the US could establish bases on islands. This never happens, it was presented to the Americans who as a whole do not favor foreign policy.
What and why was the Land Lease Act?
This allowed the US government to sell, transfer, exchange, lend, lease war materials to any country whose defense is vital to the US defense. Britain could not pay cash or carry out themselves, but US wants Great Britain to stay in the war in case US did.
in 1911, what was the trade agreement made with Japan?
We would give them our scrap materials.
What was the Stimpson Doctrine?
1932, Hoover refuses to recognize territorial areas taken by force (cued by some forceful Japanese action)
in 1937, Japan...
in 1940, Japan...
joins in the axis powers, FDR cuts trade agreement with Japan
In 1941, Japan invades French _________, ___________ takes over as Prime Minister. Japan begins to _______________.
Indochina; Hideki Tojo; prepare for war
In November and early December, Japan actually
spoke of peace with the US
On December 6, 1941 Japan..., and the US...
Japan makes demands, US breaks the Japanese codes and says to destroy the peace paper. Japan is cutting relations with the US, the next step is war.
Dec 7, 1941
Pearl Harbor; 2400 men, 150 airplanes, 6 battle ships; END OF ISOLATIONISM.
December _ 1941, we declare war on Japan
December _ 1941, Germany and Italy declare war on the US
Name the allies and major qualities.
US (FDR) GB (Churchill) SU (Stalin) France -met at conferences, willing to form a genuine coalition, all equals, all wanted to end the war.
Name axis and qualities
Germany Italy Japan Hitler was in charge, they fought a war of tyranny and oppression, Hitler was forceful and never won the favor of his conquered nations (like France, who helped the US a lot bc they hated him)
Military mobilization a,b,c
a.General Dwight D. Eisenhower was in charge of the European front b.General Douglas MacArthur was in charge of the Pacific front c.the draft ages were 18-45, but younger men could enlist with parental permission, 50 million total were registered
economic mobilization a,b,c,d+
a.Office of Price Administration-price freezes, rationing b. War Production Board-deal with factories. convert them to war production c. War Bonds-push for war bond sales d. Revenue acts-taxes placed mainly on the wealthy to support the war. Hitler underestimated the US, women must work now or the war will be lost, so daycares are formed.
Office of War Information would ask the press to censor bad information or stories, propaganda posters
What was the overall Allied strategy?
Europe first (GB may not hang on much longer)
The first "battle" fought when US was in the war was the ...., which was suffered even by merchants
battle of the atlantic
Operation: Torch: Africa
The first real fighting took place in North Africa, the purpose was to invade Morocco and Algeria in November 1942. There were oil reserves that Germany wanted and America goes there to help the British. Germans are defeated May 1943. It was Eisenhower v. Erwin Rommel
D-Day overall purpose
to establish a second front in Europe to eventually attack Germany and end the war.
date of dday
june 6 1944
Stalin wanted America to land somewhere in western europe for dday because
to pull german troops away from USSR
for dday, what happened at callais
they made it seem like a fake army was there
for dday, how did US get info about railroads, etc
paratroopers left the night before dday to
land behind enemy lines
after dday (July) Patton succeeds in
reaching and liberating Paris
September and October of 1944, patton
frees Belgium, reaches German border
Germany's timeline of surrender
April 1945--Soviets invade Berlin April 30th Hitler commits suicide May 8th Germany surrenders
The first war-time conference of allies:
Casablanca, only FDR and Churchill because Stalin's country was dangerous. At this conference they demand unconditional surrender of the Axis Powers
second war-time conference
Tehran, FDR, Stalin, Churchill all agree to establish a second front in 1944 (dday...?) Soviets will invade Germany and eventually join war with Japan (join against Jap mainly just to gain land, no real need)
third war-time conference (plans: 5)
Yalta--BIGGEST CONFERENCE. the three made plans concerning post-war Europe. Germany--occupation zones Free elections in liberated Europe Soviets enter war against Japan new world peace org. est. (UN) *during this conference, FDR is ill, weak, conciliatory, gives in to Stalin easier. Stalin wants to surroung himself w other commie countries bc he thinks after the war it'll be democracy v. communism. West Germany goes to US, GB, France-deomcracy East Germany goes to Soviet Union-communism
Truman has now replaced roosevelt, is aggressive and doesnt know much. allies warn Japan to surrender unconditionally (A-bomb dropped because they wanted to keep their emperor) agree to hold war-time trials of Nazi leaders Stalin wants to be sure he is never attacked by Germany again.
How had the Japanese accomplished a goal by the time Germany surrendered?
In the Pacific, they'd managed to occupy Korea, eastern CHina, Phillippines, British Bermuda, Malaya, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Indonesia. They'd kept the united states occupied elsewhere in order to do so.
Battle of Coral sea May 7-8,1942
US stops Japanese attack on Australia
Battle of Midway June 4-7, 1942
US destroys 4 Japanese carriers, 300 planes
What was Island Hopping
In the Pacific, In order for America to take back the islands near Japan, occupied by Japan, US would take one, then skip one, then take another, so that the ones in between would starve with no supplies. Iwo Jima and Okinawa both had to be taken
Battle of Leyte Gulf October 1944
Kamikaze pilots thought it honorable to die in battle Philippines are liberated by April 1945
Once Iwo Jima and oknawa are taken,
the only thing left is Japan but US doesn't want to invade on foot because civilians have been told to die for country, to kill Americans, etc
The dropping of the A-bomb was justified by
-if US invades, they lose at least 1 million men -men will be against civilians who swear allegiance to the emperor and are taught that Americans are evil
Roosevelt was justified in building the A-bomb because
Germany was building one. Truman didn't know this and thus was okay with dropping it on Japan
What is Truman's main reason for dropping the bombs?
Truman wants to scare Stalin by showing him what the US is capable of (Japan was actually ready to surrender--not unconditionally. Truman was advised not to drop the bomb)
The places the bombs were dropped
had to have not been touched by the war Hiroshima chosen bc its industrial Nagasaki chosen bc its rural
Now that we drop the atomic bombs,
we introduce the atomic age. Soviet gets ahold of it, China wants it. Soviets do end up getting Atomic bombs
Who desegregated the armed forces
1.5 million blacks left the south for jobs, how many blacks were in the armed forces?
What was the "double V" for minorities
victory in war and against discrimination
black ppl organization founded in 1942--during WWII