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Reproduction - Male Hypogonadism
Terms in this set (10)
Body produces insufficient amount of androgens, such as testosterone
steroid hormone; important for sexual, cognitive, and body functions and development.
What is the normal feedback loop that regulates testosterone production in the male?
Hypothalamus releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). GnRH stimulates the anterior pituitary, releasing: luteinizing hormone (LH) & follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). LH stimulates Leydig Cells, which stimulates testosterone. FSH stimulates Sertoli Cells, which initiates spermatogenesis & release ABP (for concentrating testosterone) and inhibit.
What are the normal roles of testosterone in terms of sperm production and other male characteristics?
-Fetal Development: appropriate differentiation of internal & external genitalia of fetus; descent of testes in males.
-Sperm production: initiation of spermatogenesis, maturation of sperm.
-Other Male Characteristics: stimulation of erythropoiesis (increase hematocrit);
acts on larynx (deepening of voice); increase libido; enlargement of penis;
bone maturation; increase in height, muscle mass, & body hair (pubic, chest, facial)
What are possible causes of low testosterone in general?
-Testicle Related: Klinefelter's Syndrome (2 or more X chromosomes & Y are present); Cryptorchidism (testes fail to descend into scrotum); Orchitis (inflammation of testicles); normal aging; injury to testicles;
radiation (indirect or direct)
-Pituitary or Hypothalamus Related: Kallmann Syndrome (deficient hypothalamic GnRH secretion); Pituitary Disorder ( i.e. tumor, surgical damage); hypothalamus disorder (i.e. injury or surgical damage)
-Other Causes: chronic systemic disease (cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, chronic renal failure)
What is the meaning of the lack of LH stimulation after GnRH is given?
-In healthy males: GnRH is released causing elevation in LH and FSH from anterior pituitary gland; release of testosterone from the testes
-Lack of LH stimulation after GnRH is given: no elevation in LH and FSH
What is the meaning of the normal testosterone production with the administration of HCG?
-HCG is an LH analog, so it mimics LH
-In Healthy Males: giving LH causes a rise in testosterone
-Giving him LH caused 50% increase in testosterone (normal). Indicates that the gonads are working. Means the problem is the lack of LH from the anterior pituitary gland.
Primary: testicular failure due to problem in testes. Low androgens; low sperm count; result from lack of negative feedback from hypothalamic-pituitary level; HIGH gonadotropins (high LH & FSH); hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism
Secondary: lack of stimulation through gonadotropins (LH & FSH) from pituitary. Low androgens, low sperm count, result from lack of secretion of gonadotropins from hypothalamic-pituitary level; LOW gonadotropins (LH & FSH); hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism
What do you guess is going on with our patient? Is there a problem with the hypothalamus? Is there a problem with the anterior pituitary?
Secondary male hypogonadism based on:
LOW gonadotropin levels (LH & FSH). Due to lack of stimulation from the pituitary gland. When given the GnRH, there was no elevation in LH from the anterior pituitary
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