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Chapter 17 - Human Health and Environmental Risks
Friedland and Relyea
Terms in this set (41)
Any impaired function of the body with a characteristic set of symptoms.
A disease caused by a pathogen.
Diseases that slowly impairs functioning of an organism.
Diseases that rapidly impair the functioning of an organism.
A situation in which a pathogen causes a rapid increase in disease.
An epidemic that occurs over a large geographic region.
Infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, carried by fleas.
An infectious disease caused by one of several species of protists in the genus Plasmodium.
A highly contagious disease caused by bacterium.
Emergent infectious diseases
infectious diseases that were previously not described or common for the last 20 years.
An infectious disease caused by HIV.
A virus that causes AIDS.
Ebola hemorrhagic fever
An infectious disease with high death rates caused by the Ebola virus.
Mad cow disease
A disease in which prions mutate into deadly pathogens and slowly damage the cow's nervous system.
Small, beneficial proteins that occasionally mutate into a pathogen.
An avian influenza caused by the H1N1 virus.
West Nile virus
A virus that lives in hundreds of species of birds and is transmitted by mosquitoes.
Chemicals that disrupt the nervous system of animals.
Chemicals that cause cancer.
Carcinogens that cause damage to the genetic material of a cell.
Chemicals that interfere with the normal development of embryos or fetuses.
Chemicals that cause allergic reactions.
Chemicals that interfere with the normal functioning of hormones in an animal's body.
Studies that expose organisms to different amounts of a chemical and then observe a variety of possible responses, including mortality or changes in behavior or reproduction.
Experiments that expose organisms to an environmental hazard for a short duration.
The lethal dose of a chemical that kills 50% of the individuals in a dose-response study.
The effects of an environmental hazard that are not lethal, but which may impair an organism's behavior, physiology, or reproduction.
The effective dose of a chemical that causes 50% of the individuals in the dose-response study to display harmful but nonlethal effect.
Experiments that expose organisms to an environmental hazard for a long duration.
The study of causes of illness and disease in the populations of human s and other organisms.
Studies that monitor people who have been exposed to an environmental hazard at some point in the past.
Studies that monitor people who might become exposed to harmful chemicals in the future.
Synergistic interactions Risks that cause more harm together than expected based on separate individual risks.
Routes of exposure
The way in which an individual might come into contact with an environmental hazard.
How well a chemical dissolves in a liquid.
The increase in chemical concentration in animal tissues as the chemical moves up the food chain.
The length of time a chemical remains in the environment.
Anything in the environment that can potentially cause harm.
A principle based on the philosophy that a potential hazard should not be considered an actual hazard until the scientific data definitely demonstrate that it actually causes harm.
A 2001 agreement among 127 nations concerning 12 chemicals to be banned, phased out, or reduced.
A 2007 agreement among the nations of the European Union about the regulation of chemicals.
A principle based on the philosophy that action should be taken against a plausible environmental hazard.
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