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BIL 151 Lecture 1 Quiz 1
Terms in this set (40)
study of natural world using observable physical evidence
a scientist requires, devises, and has a willingness to? separate with semicolons
observable, physical evidence; experiments designed to falsify, hypothesis; modify or even reject long-held ideas that turn out to be wrong
what is the goal of science
falsify testable hypotheses
steps of scientific method
observation, question, hypothesis, prediction, experimental design, data collection, data analysis, conclusion,
specific to general, bottom up
Risk of Inductive leap
a general conclusion derived from many specific observations may not always be true
The bee stung me. It belongs to taxonomic group Hymenoptera. The hornet stung me. It belongs to taxonomic group Hymenoptera. The fire ant stung me. It belongs to taxonomic group Hymenoptera. Therefore, all Hymenoptera have stingers. What types of reasoning is this?
What type of reasoning prevents the complication that a general rule may turn out to be wrong most of the time?
general to specific, top down
What does deductive reasoning test? What do you need to collect to test those generalizations?
Generalizations like existing theories and hypotheses, experimental observations
List the steps of syllogism
Inductive generalization, observation, specific conclusion
What step of syllogism is this? All hornets have stingers.
What step of syllogism is this? This thing in my hand is a hornet.
What step of syllogism is this? Therefore, this thing in my hand has a stinger
List the three things science requires
falsifiable hypotheses and theories, rigorous experimental testing of hypotheses, observable evidence
a tentative explanation for an observed phenomenon
a well-substantiated explantation of some aspect of the natural world
Feather pigmentation in flamingos is influenced by carotenoids in their diet. Is this a hypothesis, theory, or law?
Evolution proceeds by means of natural selection. Is this a hypothesis, theory, or law?
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but only changed in form. Is this a hypothesis, theory, or law?
A closed system will move to towards a state of greater disorder/chaos. Is this a hypothesis, theory, or law?
Define a law
describes events in nature that occur exactly the same way everytime, under the same conditions; predicts a specific result under a specific set of circumstances
What does a theory do that a law doesnt
explain why that result occurs
what is a law dependent on
cause and effect
what did karl popper believe?
falsifiability; a hypothesis is not made stronger by repeated verification, but by overcoming falsification
List the steps in the process of elimination that falsification entails
observation, competing hypotheses, rigorous experiments, predict results, analyze, reject or fail to reject hypotheses
What can a hypothesis not falsified by experimental results be accepted as
a provisional potential explanation of the observation
What term did platt term
what is strong inference
straightforward powerful method of addressing a scientific method: pose multiple competing hypotheses
what did platt liken strong inference too
climbing a tree with a series of dichotomous (two way) branched
what can evolved into an overall hypothesis
a question inspired by an observation
what are the two types of hypotheses that can make an overall hypothesis testable
what are the two things alternative hypotheses can be
two tailed, one tailed
list conditions for model organisms
easy to raise and maintain, short generation time, similar to humans, used when human experimentation would be unethical or unfeasible
bacteria, list scientific name
yeast, list scientific name
thale cress, list scientific name
fruit fly, list scientific name
zebra fish, list scientific name
house mouse, list scientific name
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