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Chemistry: Chapter 3
Terms in this set (42)
The physical forms of matter, either solid, liquid, or gas, are called the ———————-.
States of matter
————- are a form of matter that have their own definite shape and volume.
————— are a form of matter that have a definite volume but take the shape of the container.
————- have no definite shape or volume. They expand to fill their container.
———— refers to the gaseous state of a substance that is a solid or liquid at room temperature.
A ———————— is a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the sample's composition.
————————- are dependent on the amount of substance present, such as mass, length, or volume.
———————— are independent of the amount of substance present, such as density.
The ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substances is called a ———————-.
What are some examples of chemical properties?
Iron rusting, copper turning green in the air
A substance —— change form.
Chemical properties can change with specific ——————————-, such as temperature and pressure.
A change that alters a substance without changing its composition is known as a ————————-.
A ———————- is a transition of matter from one state to another.
What are some examples of phase changes?
Boiling, freezing, melting, condensing
A change that involves one or more substances turning into new substances is called a ————————.
What are terms that describe chemical changes?
Decomposing, rusting, exploding, burning, or oxidizing
What is evidence that a chemical change has occurred?
Change in color, change in odor, change in temperature, formation of a solid or gas from a liquid
The ————————————- states that mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction, it is conserved.
Law of Conservation of Mass
During a chemical change, the mass of the reactants ——— the mass of the products.
A ————— is a combination of two or more pure substances in which each pure substance retains its individual chemical properties.
A ————————— is a mixture where the composition is constant throughout.
Homogeneous mixtures are also called ————-.
A ————————- is a mixture where the individual substances remain distinct.
An ————- is a pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means.
92 elements occur —————- on Earth.
The ———————- organizes the elements into a grid of horizontal rows called periods and vertical columns called groups.
A —————— is a made up of two or more elements combined chemically.
Most of the matter in the universe exists as ——————-.
Elements can never be ——————-.
——————- can be broken into components by chemical means.
The —————— of a compound are different from its component elements.
The ————————- states that a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass, no matter how large or small the sample.
Law of Definite Proportions
the ratio of the mass of each element to the total mass of the compound expressed as a percentage.
Percent by mass
What's the equation for percent by mass?
Percent by mass= mass of element/mass of compound x 100
A 168.02 g sample of baking soda contains 45.98 g of sodium. What is the percent by mass of sodium in the sample?
The ——————————- states that when different compounds are formed by a combination of the same elements, different masses of one element combine with the same relative mass of the other element in whole number ratios.
Law of Multiple Proportions
—————— is a technique that uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid in a heterogeneous mixture.
——————- is a separation technique for homogeneous mixtures that is based on the differences in boiling points of substances.
————————— is a separation technique for homogenous mixtures that results in the formation of pure solid particles from a solution containing the dissolved substance.
————————- is the process of a solid changing directly to a gas, which can be used to separate mixtures of solids when one sublimates and the other does not.
——————— is a technique that separates the components of a mixture on the basis of tendency of each to travel across the surface of another material.
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