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Tidal Volume

normal quiet breathing

tidal volume ranges

500 mL (male and females)

inspiratory reserve volume

maximum amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after normal tidal volume inhalation

inspiratory volume ranges

900-1900mL females
2300-3300mL males

expiratory reserve volume

maximum amount of air forcefully exhaled after normal tidal volume exhalation

expiratory reserve volume range

600-800mL females
1000-1200 males

vital capacity

maximum amount of air exhaled after maximal inhalation

vital capacity ranges

2900-3100 females
4500-4800 males


act of measuring lung volumes and capacities

variations in respiratory volumes depend on

person's size
physical condition

Pulmonary ventilation (breathing) two phases

inspiration (air taken into lungs)
expiration ( air passes out of lungs)

Boyle's Law

pressure of gas inversely proportional to volume


measure respiratory volumes (2 different kinds)

BTPS Factor(Body Temperature, atmospheric Pressure, and water Saturation)

all averages of measured values multiplied by this, because pressure and temperature inside spirometer are influnced by room temp and differ from those in body.

BTPS factor is typically

1.1 or very close to that value.
Averages of the measured values are multiplied by BTPS factor to obtain the corrected values for the respiratory volumes

Minute respiratory volume

volume of air moved into the respiratory passageways per minute.

Computing minute respiratory volume

MRV=TV x respirations/minute

Computing ERV

Average ERV x BTPS factor (1.1)

Computing VC

Average VC x BTPS factor (1.1)

Computing IRV


convert height in inches to a height in centimeters

65 inches x 2.54 cm =

% of predicted VC value

average measured VC
------------------------------ x 100 = % predicted VC
predicted VC value

Residual Volume

amount of air remaining in lungs after maximal expiratory effort that cannot be voluntarily flushed from lungs.

Residual air range

1100mL females
1200mL males

Why is residual air important?

because it allows gas exchange to occur continuously-even between breaths

Computing predicted RV equation

VC x factor = RV
ages 16-34 factor=0.250
ages 35-49 factor=0.305
ages 50-69 factor=0.445

Respiration rate depends on

lung capacity

measure respiration rate

before exercise
during mild exercise
during recovery period

science workshop/datastudio records and displays

change in pressure and a calculation of respiration rate

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

most prominent, lines lumen of larynx, trachea, most of upper respiratory tract.

hyaline cartilage

found in 8 of 9 cartilages that make up larynx and in c-shaped tracheal rings.

simple squamous epithelium

allows for rapid gas exchange in alveoli-has appearance of a cluster of grapes.

Elastic Cartilage

located in the epiglottis.

4 types of epithelium in respiratory system

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
simple squamous epithelium
Hyaline cartilage
Elastic cartilage

Breathing that basic rhythm

inspiratory-quiet breathing
expiratory-during forceful breathing, must be activated by inspiratory

Adjust rate of breathing

pneumotaxic-turns off nerve signals when lungs fill up with air (short quick breaths)
apneustic-stimulates inspiratory response (deep breaths) overrides pneumotaxic area if activated

Anatomical dead space

space in conducting airways where inhaled airs does not exchange with blood (nose, bronchi, mouth)


lung doesn't dialate properly. such as a collapsed lung. Lung is not sealed or does not fully expand as in preemies

chronic bronchitis

constant cough lasting a long time. known as smoker's cough. can cause scarring of lungs, less airflow, and thickened lining of airways


a pit in area of organ where blood vessels and nerves enter or leave an organ


mucus secreting cells that holds water. found in goblet cells of digestive and respirtaory tract and salivary glands. doesn't breakdown with proteins

Negative pressure breathing

using force to bring air against its pressure gradient

Ondine's curse

Apneustic signal does not work in men when asleep. Named after a greek goddess who cause a mortal who loved her to sleep forever.

Minute Respiratory Volume


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