44 terms

# Respiratory physiology

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Tidal Volume
normal quiet breathing
tidal volume ranges
500 mL (male and females)
inspiratory reserve volume
maximum amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after normal tidal volume inhalation
inspiratory volume ranges
900-1900mL females
2300-3300mL males
expiratory reserve volume
maximum amount of air forcefully exhaled after normal tidal volume exhalation
expiratory reserve volume range
600-800mL females
1000-1200 males
vital capacity
maximum amount of air exhaled after maximal inhalation
vital capacity ranges
2900-3100 females
4500-4800 males
Spirometry
act of measuring lung volumes and capacities
variations in respiratory volumes depend on
person's size
gender
physical condition
Pulmonary ventilation (breathing) two phases
inspiration (air taken into lungs)
expiration ( air passes out of lungs)
Boyle's Law
pressure of gas inversely proportional to volume
spirometer
measure respiratory volumes (2 different kinds)
BTPS Factor(Body Temperature, atmospheric Pressure, and water Saturation)
all averages of measured values multiplied by this, because pressure and temperature inside spirometer are influnced by room temp and differ from those in body.
BTPS factor is typically
1.1 or very close to that value.
Averages of the measured values are multiplied by BTPS factor to obtain the corrected values for the respiratory volumes
Minute respiratory volume
volume of air moved into the respiratory passageways per minute.
Computing minute respiratory volume
MRV=TV x respirations/minute
Computing ERV
Average ERV x BTPS factor (1.1)
Computing VC
Average VC x BTPS factor (1.1)
Computing IRV
IRV = VC - TV - ERV
convert height in inches to a height in centimeters
65 inches x 2.54 cm =
% of predicted VC value
average measured VC
------------------------------ x 100 = % predicted VC
predicted VC value
Residual Volume
amount of air remaining in lungs after maximal expiratory effort that cannot be voluntarily flushed from lungs.
Residual air range
1100mL females
1200mL males
Why is residual air important?
because it allows gas exchange to occur continuously-even between breaths
Computing predicted RV equation
VC x factor = RV
ages 16-34 factor=0.250
ages 35-49 factor=0.305
ages 50-69 factor=0.445
Respiration rate depends on
activity
levels
elevation
health
lung capacity
measure respiration rate
before exercise
during mild exercise
during recovery period
science workshop/datastudio records and displays
change in pressure and a calculation of respiration rate
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
most prominent, lines lumen of larynx, trachea, most of upper respiratory tract.
hyaline cartilage
found in 8 of 9 cartilages that make up larynx and in c-shaped tracheal rings.
simple squamous epithelium
allows for rapid gas exchange in alveoli-has appearance of a cluster of grapes.
Elastic Cartilage
located in the epiglottis.
4 types of epithelium in respiratory system
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
simple squamous epithelium
Hyaline cartilage
Elastic cartilage
Breathing that basic rhythm
inspiratory-quiet breathing
expiratory-during forceful breathing, must be activated by inspiratory
pneumotaxic-turns off nerve signals when lungs fill up with air (short quick breaths)
apneustic-stimulates inspiratory response (deep breaths) overrides pneumotaxic area if activated
space in conducting airways where inhaled airs does not exchange with blood (nose, bronchi, mouth)
Atelectasis
lung doesn't dialate properly. such as a collapsed lung. Lung is not sealed or does not fully expand as in preemies
chronic bronchitis
constant cough lasting a long time. known as smoker's cough. can cause scarring of lungs, less airflow, and thickened lining of airways
Hilus
a pit in area of organ where blood vessels and nerves enter or leave an organ
mucin
mucus secreting cells that holds water. found in goblet cells of digestive and respirtaory tract and salivary glands. doesn't breakdown with proteins
Negative pressure breathing
using force to bring air against its pressure gradient
Ondine's curse
Apneustic signal does not work in men when asleep. Named after a greek goddess who cause a mortal who loved her to sleep forever.
Minute Respiratory Volume
12-20