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22 terms

Chapter 20 (heart sounds)

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What causes heart sounds?
*Caused by the closing of valves and the collision of blood against them when they do
What causes AV valves to open?
*When atrial pressure exceeds ventricular pressure

*Opening and closing of valves is passive
What causes AV valves to close?
*When ventricular pressure exceeds atrial pressure

*Opening and closing of valves is passive
What causes semilunar valves to open?
*When ventricular pressure exceeds pulmonary trunk and aortic pressure
What causes semilunar valves to close?
*When pulmonary trunk and aortic pressure exceed ventricular pressure
What is the notation for the first heart sound?
S₁
What is the notation for the second heart sound?
S₂
What causes the first heart sound?
*"lub"

*Closing of the AV valves (tricuspid and bicuspid)

***LONGEST and LOUDEST SOUND
WHat causes the second heart sound?
*"dub"

*Closing of the pulmonary and aortic valves
Where can the sound of the tricuspid valve be most clearly heard?
*Fifth intercostal space

*On right side very near midline
Where can the sound of the bicuspid valve be most clearly heard?
*Fifth intercostal space

*Left side close to the nipple line
Where can the sound of the pulmonary valve be most clearly heard?
*Second intercostal space

*Left side slightly away from midline
Where can the sound of the aortic valve be most clearly heard?
*Second intercostal space

*Right side slightly away from midline
What type of blood flow is involved in a heart murmur?
Turbulent blood flow
What is stenosis?
*Narrowing a valve

*Creates resistance to blood flow

*Heard when blood flows through a valve

*A "swoosh" sound is heard just prior to the heart sounds
What sound is heard with an AV stenosis?
AV Stenosis prior to S₁sounds like "swoosh-lub"
What sound is heard with a Semilunar stenosis?
Semilunar stenosis prior to S₂sounds like "swoosh-dub"
What is valve insufficiency?
*aka Valve Regurgitation

*Improper closing of valves

*Causes a backflow of blood through valves

*Heard when valves are closed

*A "swoosh" sound is heard during and after heart sounds
What is heard during AV insufficiency?
AV insufficiency during S₁sounds like "swoosh-lub"
What is heard during Semilunar insufficiency?
Semilunar insufficiency during S₂sounds like "dub-swoosh"
What is the most commonly heard murmur?
Bicuspid valve insufficiency
What is a septal defect?
*"Hole in the heart"

*Causes blood flow to be turbulent