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Pharmacology Based VTNE Questions
Terms in this set (15)
Which of the following is an indication to include an anticholinergic in preanesthetic medication?
A.To treat tachypnea
B.To produce a sedative effect
C.To provide analgesia
D.To treat vagally mediated bradycardia
To treat vagally mediated bradycardia
Rationale:Anticholinergic agents are used as a treatment for vagally mediated bradycardia. They are no longer recommended for routine use in premedications.
Which adrenergic agent stimulates beta receptors at low dosages and alpha receptors at high dosages?
Rationale:Dopamine (b) must be administered as a continuous rate infusion (CRI). At low dosages it stimulates beta adrenergic receptors and increases myocardial contractility. At high dosages it stimulates alpha adrenergic receptors and causes vasoconstriction.
Which drug should be avoided during corticosteroid therapy?
Rationale:Corticosteroids should not be given concurrently with NSAIDs, such as etodolac (a). Morphine, meperidine, and oxymorphone (b, c, and d) are all opioid analgesics.
Which is true of live vaccines?
A.They are the safest and most effective form
B.They work immediately after being administered
C.They are most effective but most likely to induce disease
D.They treat diseases in which the immune system is responding inappropriately
They are most effective but most likely to induce disease
Rationale:Modified-live and live vaccines tend to be more effective, but are also more likely to induce disease (c), and they may be dangerous to pregnant animals. Killed vaccines are safest—not live ones (a). Most vaccines do not work immediately (b), but rather can take 2 weeks or more to be effective. Vaccines cannot cure a disease process that is present before vaccination; instead, it is the immunosuppressants that are used to treat diseases in which the animal's immune system is responding inappropriately (d).
Which agent can be used to diagnose and treat myasthenia gravis?
Rationale:Anticholinesterase agents, such as edrophonium or pyridostigmine (d), are used to diagnose and treat myasthenia gravis. Diazepam (a) is used to control seizures, and isoflurane (b) is an inhalant anesthetic. Atracurium (c) is a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, which causes skeletal muscle paralysis.
How does a systemic antacid such as cimetidine act on the stomach?
A.Prevents the production of hydrochloric acid
B.Treats defects in the stomach lining
C.Protects the stomach lining
D.Neutralizes stomach acid
Prevents the production of hydrochloric acid
Rationale:Histamine blockers, such as cimetidine, ranitidine, and famotidine, prevent the production of hydrochloric acid (a). Antiulcer medications neutralize stomach acid, protect the stomach lining, and treat defects in the stomach lining (b, c, and d).
Which best describes the goal of antimicrobial therapy?
A.Kill microorganisms in the host and restore normal flora
B.Prevent microorganisms in the host from infecting other animals
C.Kill or inhibit microorganisms in the host without killing the host
D.Prevent microorganisms in the host from moving to other places in the body
Kill or inhibit microorganisms in the host without killing the host
Rationale:Antimicrobials are drugs that kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms (c), such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. For the antimicrobial to work, the microorganism must be susceptible to the agent, while at the same time the patient must be able to tolerate it (c). Antimicrobials do not restore normal flora (a) or prevent microorganisms in the host from infecting other animals (b). Although the microorganisms may stop spreading to do annihilation or inhibition, it is not a goal of microbial therapy to prevent their moving to other places in the body (d).
Which best describes resistance in analyzing the efficacy of antibiotic therapy?
A.Inhibition of nucleic acid production
B.Disruption of microbial metabolic activity
C.Interference with microbial protein synthesis
D.Microbial viability in the presence of an antibiotic drug
Microbial viability in the presence of an antibiotic drug
Rationale:In analyzing the efficacy of antibiotic therapy, the term resistance refers to bacteria developing the ability to survive in the presence of an antibiotic drug (d). The other properties, inhibition of nucleic acid production, disruption of microbial metabolic activity, and interference with microbial protein synthesis (a, b, and c), are all mechanisms of an antimicrobial agent.
Which drug is an antidote to lead poisoning?
Rationale:Calcium EDTA (a) is an antidote to lead poisoning. Cyproheptadine (b) treats serotonin syndrome (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor toxicity). Atropine (d) treats organophosphate toxicity, and dantrolene (c) treats malignant hyperthermia.
What does the drug dimercaprol (BAL in oil) treat?
A.Arsenic, lead, mercury, gold toxicity
B.Venomous snake envenomation
C.Crotalid snake envenomation
D.Nitrate and chlorate toxicity
Arsenic, lead, mercury, gold toxicity
Rationale:Dimercaprol is used to treat arsenic, lead, mercury, and gold toxicity (a). In the United States, venomous snake envenomation (b) is treated with antivenin (Crotalidae) polyvalent and crotalid snake envenomation (c) is treated with crotalidae polyvalent immune FAB (ovine). Nitrate and chlorate toxicity (d) in ruminants are both treated with methylene blue.
A veterinarian has four antiemetics to choose from for a patient who is vomiting because of a vestibular disturbance. Which drug is not recommended?
Rationale:Aminopentamide (c) is an antispasmodic and is the only drug listed here that is not indicated for vomiting that is due to a vestibular disturbance. Chlorpromazine, diphenhydramine, and meclizine (a, b, and d) may be used when vomiting is related to motion sickness or vestibular disturbance.
Which laxative agent acts by drawing water to the bowel?
Rationale:Hyperosmotics, such as lactulose and magnesium hydroxide (a), draw water to the bowel, where it softens the stool. Lubricants, such as mineral oil (b) and petroleum jelly, make the passage of stool easier. Stool softeners such as docusate (c) allow water to penetrate gastrointestinal (GI) contents, and bulk-producing agents or fiber (d) help increase the water content of the stool and stimulate peristalsis in the GI tract.
Which of the following is produced by the kidneys and stimulates red blood cell production?
Rationale:Erythropoietin (c) is a growth hormone produced by the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell (RBC) production. Androgens (anabolic steroids) (a), although rarely used because of adverse side effects, may be beneficial in treating certain chronic anemias. Blood substitutes, such as Oxyglobin (b), can increase oxygen-carrying capacity temporarily while the body grows new RBCs. Fludrocortisone (d) is a mineralcorticoid used in the treatment of hypoadrenocortism.
According to DEA regulations, which drug category has the least abuse potential?
Rationale:In the United States, C-V drugs (d) have the least abuse potential. Controlled drugs are classified by the Drug Enforcement Administration according to their abuse potential and are denoted by the symbols C-I (most abuse potential) through C-V (least abuse potential). Schedule I drugs (a) have no current acceptable medical use and will not be found in veterinary practices. Schedule II drugs (b) are highly regulated drugs that have restricted medical uses, stringent record keeping standards, and specific storage requirements. C-III to C-V drugs are generally treated in the same way in terms of required record keeping and storage facilities.
What is the "first-pass" effect?
A.A drug's ability to achieve the desired effect compared with its tendency to produce toxic effects
B.The liver's removal of a drug before it can affect the rest of the body
C.Biotransformation of a drug within the body
D.A drug's entrance into the bloodstream
The liver's removal of a drug before it can affect the rest of the body
Rationale:The liver's removal of a drug before it can affect the rest of the body (b) is called the "first-pass" effect. This happens as orally administered drugs travel to the liver before reaching the systemic circulation. A drug's ability to achieve the desired effect compared with its tendency to produce toxic effects (a) is its therapeutic index. Biotransformation of a drug within the body (c) is called metabolism. A drug's entrance into the blood stream (d) is called absorption.
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