Gallbladder Pathology

Ultrasound gallbladder pathology ch 7
Small polypoid projections from the gallbladder wall
Ampulla of Vater
Small opening in the duodenum in which the pancreatic and common bile duct enter to release secretions
Yellowish pigment in bile formed by the breakdown of red blood cells
Inflammation of the bile duct
Removal of the gallbladder
Inflammation of the gallbladder; may be acute or chronic
Hormone secreted into the blood by the mucosa of the upper small intestine; stimulates contraction of the gallbladder and pancreatic secretion of enzymes
Choledochal cyst
Dilation of the common duct that may cause obstruction
Stones in the bile duct
Gallstones in the gallbladder
Variant of adenomyatosis; cholesterol polyps
Common bile duct
Extends from the point where the common hepatic duct meets the cystic duct; drains into the duodenum after it joins with the main pancreatic duct
Common Hepatic Duct
Bile duct system that drains the liver into the common bile duct
Cystic Duct
Connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct
Storage pouch for bile
Hartman's pouch
Small part of the gallbladder that lies near the cystic duct where stones may collect
Heister's valve
Tiny valves found within the cystic duct
Massive enlargement of the gallbladder
Excessive bilirubin accumulation causes yellow pigmentation of the skin; first seen in the whites of the eyes
Junctional fold
Small septum within the gallbladder, usually arising from the posterior wall
Klatskin's tumor
Cancer at the bifurcation of the hepatic ducts; may cause asymmetric obstruction of the billary tree
Murphy's sign
Positive sign implies exquisite tenderness over the area of the gallbladder upon palpation
Pancreatic duct
Travels horizontally through the pancreas to join the common bile duct at the Ampula of Vater
Phrygian cap
Gallbladder variant in which part of the fundus is bent back on itself
Small, well defined soft tissue projection from the gallbladder wall
Porcelain Gallbladder
Calcification of the gallbladder wall
Porta Hepatis
Central area of the liver where the portal vein, common duct, and hepatic artery enter
Low-level echoes found along the posterior margin of the gallbladder; move with change in position
Sphincter of Oddi
Small muscle that guards the ampula of Vater
wall echo shadow (WES) sign
Sonographic pattern found when the gallbladder is packed with stones