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Ethical Dilemmas in Nursing

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bioethics
a branch of philosophy, also called moral philosophy; a systematic reflection on human conduct; a discipline dealing with what is good or bad(right or wrong), with moral duty and obligation; principles of conduct governing a group or individuals. It is based on knowledge and values rather tthan opinions
autonomy
an ethical principle for the individual's right to choose. The individuality of each person is respected. This respect for individual personal liberty is a dominant value in the US
non-maleficence
an ethical principle, the obligation to cause no harm to others. One always must consider the potential for harm when administering nursing care. Harm can be physiologic, psychological, social, financial and/or spiritual
beneficence
an ethical principle, the duty to promote good and to prevent harm. It is the core of nursing practice. Refers to taking positive action to help others, to serve as a ct advocate and promote their rights. To nurture the CT and incorporate their desires into personalized care
justice
an ethical principle based on fairness being extended to each individual. It involves the way people are treated and the way resources are distributed. It considers the action from the point of view of the least fortunate in our society. It results in equal and similar treatment of all people
veracity
an ethical principle that means truthfullness by not lying or deceiving. The only exception is in the case of nonmaleficence ie. giving a placebo that works
fidelity
a characteristic of professional nursing: meaning the ability of the nurse to answer for his/her own actions. CTs can expect nurses to act on their behalf as an advocate
confidentiality
a characteristic of professional nursing meaning the ability to protect the Pts privacy. Cts can expect nurses to act on their behalf as an advocate by maintaining quality of care while protecting privacy, abiding by HIPPA, avoiding letting your own values getting in the way
advocacy/accountability
a characteristic of professional nursing: meaning the attention to being reliable in truthfulness. Cts can expect nurses to act on their behalf as in conduct conforming to being truthful by balancing competing interests, informing a ct if the nurse has made an error in care, informing the C about treatments
utilitarianism
a philosophical ethical theory stating the value of a situation is determined by its consequences. The outcome of the action rather than the action is the criteria determining its goodness. This value of teleology is better known by another name
deontology/duty-based
a philosophical ethical theory that does consider the intrinsic value of the act itself as the criteria for determining its good. The motives of the individual are considered more thn the consequences of the act. The person acts based on universal principles, thus the person is never treated as a means to an end
situational ethics/relativism
an ethical theory that is based on the idea that there are no rules, no norms, and no majority focused results. Each circumstance must be considered individually with its own uniqueness and respect for the individuals involved. The belief that you cannot compare or generalize
feminist/caring
an ethical theory that people do not base decisions based on principles. Rather, that decisions are based on relationships, caring, community, a desire not to hurt others, responsiveness. It focuses on emotions, feelings, and attitudes rather than the voice of justice; as well as the story of the individual. Teri Shivo case
morals/values
refers to the shoulds and oughts to life. Of or relating to principles of right or wrong in behavior, expressing or teaching a conception of right behavior, conscience and the capability of right or wrong action. Involves the nature of most ethical dilemmas
ethnocentrism
when we think our culture or belief system is superior to others
choosing, prizing, acting
Values clarification involves: _______, which implies alternatives, ______which implies it is cherished as a value, ____ which implies congruence with your behaviors
ethical dilemma
An _______happens when you do something in clinical practice that is against your values
paternalism
when nurse or doctor makes the decision for the PT without including the PT, occurs more with the elderly
futile care
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3 criteria of a dilemma
awareness of options, moral nature to the dilemma, 2 or more options with true choice
problem, information, action, outcome
the ethical decision making process: 1st- identify____2nd-gather___3rd-examine own values 4th-verbalize the problem 5th-courses of ____ 6th-negotiate the _______ 7th- Evaluate
clarify the context(emotional climate, personal biases, cultural values, and communication problems) and define the problem(issues at stake, biological facts, psych, socio& economic factors)
What is included in the ethical decision making process