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45 terms

CHEMISTRY FINAL

STUDY
PLAY
melting
change of state from a solid to a liquid
freezing
change of state from a liquid to a solid
condensation
change of state from a gas to a liquid
evaporation
change of state from a liquid to a gas
sublimation
change of state from a solid to a gas
deposition
change of state from a gas to a solid
properties
characteristics that can be used to describe a substance
physical properties
colour, lustre, melting point, boiling point, hardness, malleability, ductility, crystal shape, solubility, density are examples of these
chemical properties
bawah - burn, air, water, acid and heat are all ways in which a substance can interact
pure substance
made up of one kind of matter
element
pure substance that cannot be broken down into any simpler substance
compound
two or more elements that have combined
mixture
a combination of more than one substance
heterogeneous
each substance in the mixture is visible
homogeneous
of the same kind; uniform in composition throughout, appears like one (also called a solution)
physical change
when a material changes state, can be reversed
chemical change
occurs when two or more substances react and create new substances, a change in colour, odour, light given off, formation of a gas or solid are ways to tell
Alkali Metals
Most reactive metals on periodic table. Very reactive to water and air. Group 1 on table.
Alkaline Earth Metals
Group 2 on periodic table. 2nd most reactive group of metals on the table
Dalton
Billiard Ball Theory - All atoms were balls of different size.
Thompson
Raisin Bun Model - Negative charges (electronspread out through positive sphere
Nagaoka
Solar System Model - negative charges orbit around a positive sphere
Rutherford
Discovered the nucleus and that atoms are mainly empty space
Bohr
Electron Shell Model - electrons orbit the nucleus in shells and each shell holds a certain amount of electrons.
Chadwich
Discovered the protons and neutrons inside the nucleus.
Halogens
Group 17 on periodic table. Most reactive non-metals. Chlorine is a well known one from this group.
Noble Gases
Group 18 on periodic table. These elements do not react with any other element on the periodic table as their valence shell is full of electrons.
Group
Vertical column on the table - there are 18 of them.
Period
Horizontal row on the table - there are 7 of them.
Metals
Are all located on the left of the staircase. Properties of metals include: conduct electricity, shiny, malleable, ductile.
Non-Metals
Are all located on the right of the staircase. Properties include: can be solid or gas, dull and brittle.
Metalloids
Are a unique set located near the staircase. These elements can display properties of both metals and non-metals.
Atomic Number
Number of protons in an atom of an element
Atomic Mass
Number of protons + neutrons in the nucleus of an atom of an element.
Mendeleev
The father of our modern day periodic table. Arranged elements in order of increasing atomic mass and left blanks for the undiscovered elements at the time.
Proton
positive charge found in nucleus of atom (p+)
Electron
Negative charge found orbiting nucleus of atom (e-)
Neutron
Neutrally charged particle found in nucleus of atom (n)
Number of Protons in Oxygen
8
20
Number of Neutrons in Calcium
Symbol for Neon
Ne
K
Potassium
6.94
Atomic Mass of Lithium
Ion Charges on Cu
+ and 2+
ionic compounds
metal + non-metal