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Chapter 12: Social Psychology
Terms in this set (64)
the scientific study of how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others
the process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, or behavior of an individual
changing one's behavior to match that of other people. Asch's study with the lines of different lengths. Phenomenon increases in collectivist cultures.
kind of thinking that occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned. Example: Bush administration's decision to invade Iraq was controversial, but advisers would not step up and speak out against it because they wanted to the government to look and act like a cohesive unit.
branch of psychology that studies the habits of consumers in the marketplace
changing one's behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change
asking for a small commitment and, after gaining compliance, asking for a larger one
asking for a large commitment, being refused, and asking for a smaller one. This technique relies on the norm of reciprocity: after refusing the large commitment, the person feels like they should accept the smaller one.
norm of reciprocity
assumption that if someone does something for a person, that person should do something for the other in return.
getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of that commitment. Example: "C'mon, just help me for five more minutes?"
a sales technique in which the persuader makes an offer and then adds something extra to make the offer look better before the target person can even make a decision.
changing one's behavior at the command of an authority figure. Milgram's study with the electric shocks.
the tendency for members involved in a group discussion to take somewhat more extreme positions and suggest riskier actions when compared to individuals who have not participated in a group discussion. Due to social comparison, where people feel the need to act in a socially desirable way, and informational social influence, which is the tendency to take cues from others in ambiguous situations. Example: jury
the tendency for the presence of other people to have a positive impact on the performance of an easy task
the tendency for the presence of other people to have a negative impact on the performance of a difficult task
the tendency for people to put less effort into a simple task when working with others on that task because the focus of the evaluation is not directly on a single individual. In more collectivist cultures such as China, people are less likely to loaf.
a tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, or situation. Three components: affective (emotion), behavior (actions), and cognitive (thoughts and beliefs). Attitudes are poor predictors of behavior. Attitudes can form through direct contact, direct instruction, interaction with others, or vicarious conditioning (observational learning).
the process by which one person tries to change the belief, opinion, position, or course of action of another person through argument, pleading, or explanation. The source and target audience are important in determining the effectiveness of the message, as well as how the message itself is delivered.
elaboration likelihood model
model of persuasion stating that people will either elaborate on the persuasive message (central-route processing) or fail to elaborate on it (peripheral-route processing) and that the future actions of those who do elaborate are more predictable than those who do not.
type of information processing that involves attending to the content of the message itself
type of information processing that involves attending to factors not involved in the message, such as the appearance of the source of the message, the length of the message, and other non-content factors.
sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person's behavior does not correspond to that person's attitudes. Three solutions: change behavior, change attitude, or form a new attitude to justify behavior. Ex: quitting smoking, or deciding that it's not that bad, or deciding that smoking "light" cigarettes is okay
the forming of the first knowledge that a person has concerning another person
the mental processes that people use to make sense of the social world around them
the assignment of a person one has just met to a category based on characteristics the new person has in common with other people with whom one has had experience in the past. Can result in a stereotype.
a set of characteristics that people believe is shared by all members of a particular social category
implicit personality theory
sets of assumptions about how different types of people, personality traits and actions are related to each other. Example: we assume that quiet people are also shy.
the process of explaining one's own behavior and the behavior of others
the theory of how people make attributions: there are two explanations-situational or dispositional
cause of behavior attributed to external factors, such as delays, the action of others, or some other aspect of the situation
cause of behavior attributed to internal factors such as personality or character
fundamental attribution error
the tendency to overestimate the influence of internal factors in determining behavior while underestimating situational factors
negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group
treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belong. Jane Elliot's experiment with brown and blue eyed children.
social groups with whom a person identifies
social groups with whom a person does not identify
realistic conflict theory
states that there will be more prejudice and discrimination between groups that are in conflict over a limited resource
a person or group, typically a member or members of an out-group, who serves as the target for the frustrations and negative emotions of members of the in-group. Scapegoats are often people in society with the least power, such as new immigrants.
social cognitive theory
referring to the use of cognitive processes in relation to understanding the social world. Attitudes are formed through direct instruction, modeling, and other social influences on learning.
social identity theory
the formation of a person's identity within a particular social group is explained by social categorization, social identity, and social comparison
the part of the self-concept including one's view of self as a member of a particular social category
the comparison of oneself to others in ways that raise one's self esteem. Ex: "if he can do it, I can do it"
the effect that people's awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior
the tendency of one's expectations to affect one's behavior in such a way as to make the expectations more likely to occur
equal status contact
contact between groups in which the groups have equal status with neither group having power over the other. This kind of contact is effective in lessening prejudice and discrimination
educational technique in which each individual is given only part of the information needed to solve a problem, causing the separate individuals to be forced to work together to find the solution. Works to eliminate prejudice and discrimination by forcing people of different backgrounds to cooperate to achieve a common goal.
liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person. Factors involved: physical attractiveness, proximity, and similarity.
physical or geographical nearness. Increases likelihood of forming a relationship.
reciprocity of liking
tendency of people to like other people who like them in return. Exception: when someone has low self-esteem, they may question the motives of the person who supposedly likes them and distrust may ensue
intimacy and passion. Often the basis for a more lasting relationship.
intimacy and commitment. Ex: holds marriage together after passion fades
passion and commitment
intimacy, passion, and commitment
behavior intended to hurt or destroy another person. Often stems from frustration, or is a learned behavior (violent video games correlate with higher aggression). Freud believed in to be instinctual.
the pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is in a particular social position. Can influence a person's behavior. Milgram's shock experiment and Zimbardo's prisoner and guard experiment.
socially desirable behavior that benefits others
prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself
the effect the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not help, with help becoming less likely as the number of bystanders increases
diffusion of responsibility
occurring when a person fails to take responsibility for action or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility
five decision points in helping behavior
2) defining an emergency
3) taking responsibility
4) planning a course of action
5) taking action
any group of people with a particular religious or philosophical set of beliefs and identity
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