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Med Term Quiz Oct. 10
Terms in this set (90)
A condition in which the lower end of the small intestine fills too quickly with undigested food from the stomach following stomach surgery, resulting in nausea, vomiting, bloating, diarrhea, and shortness of breath during or immediately following a meal.
A reversible condition in which sexual intercourse is painful
Impairment of speech that manifests as the inability to arrange words in logical order
Shortness of breath and difficulty in breathing; usually the result of lung or heart disease
A testis that has descended from the abdominal cavity and settled in the suprapubic area, the thigh, or the perineum instead of the scrotum
A congenital defect in which the abnormal development of circulation causes a reversed right-to-left shunt secondary to increased pressures on the right side of the heart resulting from pulmonary hypertension.
A series of transfer reactions that include transferring electrons from a donor to an acceptor, thereby releasing energy during each transfer
A stroke caused by blockage of cerebral vessels and usually caused by a blood clot that has broken free and traveled to the brain as an embolus
Empyema (infected pleural effusion)
A condition in which purulent material is persistently discharged into the pleural space because of complications of bacterial infections.
Inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus
A congenital abnormality in which a gap in the skull results in a protrusion of brain material
Any of the various diseases or syndromes of the brain
The volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole, just before systole (contraction)
A condition common in women of reproductive age in which the tissue lining the uterus is found outside of the uterus, resulting in pain and infertility
A cell of the endothelial layer that lines the heart, blood vessels, lymph vessels, and the lung cavity
Lipopolysaccharide released during cell lysis from the bacterial outer membrane that causes fever, leukopenia, and possibly diarrhea and hemorrhagic shock
The site of attachment of a muscle or ligament to bone
A condition in which urination is uncontrolled or involuntary
A reduction in the number of eosinophils present in the blood
A granulocyte that function as a phagocyte that destroys antigen-antibody complexes, allergen, and inflammatory chemicals and aids in fighting parasitic infections
A condition in which the number of eosinophils in the blood elevates because of diseases such as parasitic infections, allergies, cholesterol emboli, chronic myeloid leukemia, and some drug reactions
An intracranial tumor most commonly found in children that typically arises from the inner lining of the fourth ventricle and the spinal canal.
A painful condition where the epididymis becomes inflamed; usually caused by secondary bacterial infection resulting from a variety of underlying conditions, such as urinary tract or sexually transmitted infections
A collection of blood between the inner surface of the skull and the dura caused by torn arteries secondary to skull fracture
Chemical modifications that alter the expression of genes or phenotype without alteration of gene (genotype) sequence
Any of a group of syndromes characterized by recurring seizures of an unknown cause
A plate of hyaline cartilage at the end of long bones that provides a site for lengthening of the bone
A birth defect in which the urethra opens on the upper (ventral) penile surface.
A highly contagious bacterial infection that produces shiny, red, swollen areas and fever and can lead to blood poisoning and pneumonia
A skin disease caused by allergies, seasonal changes, or drug sensitivities, resulting in the formation of red macules, papules, or subdermal vesicles on the skin and mucous membranes
Erythema toxicum neonatorum
A temporary eruption of redness of the skin, small papules, and occasionally pustules in newborns accompanied by contact dermatitis or hypersensitivity to milk or other allergens
A surgical incision into necrotic tissue resulting from severe burn. The procedure is sometimes necessary to prevent edema from generating sufficient interstitial pressure to impair capillary filling, causing ischemia
A complex longitudinal torturous veins at the lower end of the esophagus, enlarged and swollen as the result of portal hypertension. These vessels are especially susceptible to hemorrhage. Conditions that can cause portal hypertension include cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis.
A protein synthesized and secreted by a specific species of bacteria
Exstrophy of the bladder
A congenital defect in which the lower abdominal wall is malformed and ruptures, allowing communication between the bladder and the amniotic fluid; results in anomalies of the lower abdominal wall, bladder, anterior bony pelvis, and external genitalia.
Extracellular matrix (basement membrane)
Fibrous proteins embedded in a carbohydrate-rich liquid secreted by the cell that functions as a pathway for diffusion of nutrients, wastes, and other substances between the blood and tissues.
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis)
An inflammation of the lung caused by an immune reaction to small airborne particles such as bacteria, mold, and fungi; causes fever, chills, coughing, shortness of breath, and body aches.
Fluids of cells that have leaked from blood vessels, usually associated with inflammation
A lipase-induced cellular dissolution of triglycerides in breast, pancreas, and other abdominal structures.
A condition in which muscles, tendons, and joints are painful, stiff, and tender; frequently accompanied by restless sleep, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and disturbances in bowel function.
A malignant tumor of the fibrous connective tissue usually derived from immature proliferating fibroblasts.
A burn that affects the epidermis only, causing erythema and, in some cases, mild edema, without vesiculation
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)
A condition in which glomerular capillaries with thickened basement membranes and increased mesangial matrix collapse in segments.
A cyst caused by the retention of secretions in a follicular space because of obstruction of a duct, resulting in failure of the dominant follicle to rupture or failure of the nondominant follicles to regress.
Inflammation of a hair follicle damaged by friction from clothing, blockage of the follicle, or shaving that becomes infected with bacteria.
Physiologic and immune changes that waste the body during agin and leave the affected person susceptible to falls, functional decline, disease, and death.
Frank-Starling law of the heart
The idea that fluctuations in the volume of blood filling the heart will change the volume ejected by the same amount because the force of the contraction will increase as the heart is filled with more blood.
Highly reactive and destructive particle with an unpaired electron; is produced from an atom or molecule
A type of viral hepatitis that has a high mortality rate and causes fatigue, nausea, jaundice, dark urine, flulike symptoms, hepatomegaly, and eventually encephalopathy.
A condition in which staphylococcal infection produces painful, pus-filled, inflamed sites on the skin and subcutaneous tissue.
Fusiform aneurysm (giant aneurysm)
A large aneurysm that stretches to affect the entire circumference of the arterial wall.
Galactorrhea (inappropriate lactation)
A condition in which milklike fluid is secreted from the breast because of hormonal alterations, but it is not associated with childbirth or nursing.
A knot or knotlike mass of nervous tissue; one of the nerve cell bodies, chiefly collected in groups outside the central nervous system. Very small groups around in association with alimentary organs. The two types of ganglia in the body are the sensory ganglia on the dorsal roots of spinal nerves and on the sensory roots of the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves and the autonomic ganglia of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.
Tissue death typically found in the lower leg as a result of severe hypoxic injury secondary to arteriosclerosis or blockage of major arteries
Tunnel or connexon that joins two adjacent cells and allows for the passage of molecules and electrical signals between the cells
The formation of gas bubbles and subsequents destruction of connective tissue and cell membranes resulting from hydrolytic enzymes produced by bacteria of the Clostridium species
A condition in which the lining of the stomach is inflamed because of bacterial infection, bile reflux, or excessive consumption of alcohol or certain foods or drugs.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
A type of injury to the esophagus caused by chronic exposure of the esophagus to stomach liquid reflux made up of acid and pepsin; creates heartburn, inflammation of the esophageal lining, strictures, dysphagia, and chronic chest pain
A process by which food entering an empty stomach increases ileal motility and causes the ileocecal valve to open.
Gate control theory
A proposal that a pain gate is present in the spinal cord that allows or blocks pain signals to the brain depending on whether the impulse is traveling on a large or small afferent fiber.
A calcium-induced decrease permeability of a junctional complex that may aid in protecting uninjured cells from the increased calcium levels released by injured cells
A mechanism in which the germ cells (egg or sperm cells) have a different genetic composition, or mixture (mosaic), than cells in the rest of the body. A child can inherit a genetic disease; the mechanism is believed to involve a mutation during the embryonic development of the parent germ cells
Giant cell tumor
A benign tumor usually near the end of the bone near a joint in arms, legs, knee, and flat bones
Severely increased long bone growth caused by excessive growth hormone secretion before and during puberty
An autoimmune of infectious disease characterized by acute or chronic inflammation of the glomeruli that may not produce symptoms or may present with hematuria and proteinuria
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
An inherited condition that is asymptomatic in the absence of exposure to particular substances, such as certain medicines, mothballs, or severe infections; with exposure, the red blood cells undergo destruction that produces excessive bilirubin, which overloads the liver and causes jaundice.
Also known as celiac sprue, this condition is characterized by mucosal lesions in the gastrointestinal tract formed in response to a genetic predisposition for an immune response to gluten and similar proteins
A noncancerous enlargement of the thyroid gland that is visible as a swelling at the front of the neck
A disorder of uric acid metabolism that causes painful inflammation of the joints, commonly the big toe, and arthritic attacks caused by elevated levels of uric acid in the blood and the deposition or urate crystals around the joints
Vascularized tissue that replaces the fibrin clot during the reconstructive phase of wound healing
A condition in which the number of granular white blood cells in the blood is decreased
A condition in which the number of granulocytes, usually neutrophils, in the blood is increased secondary to bacterial, leukemia, or autoimmune disease.
A tumor-like mass containing macrophages and fibroblasts that forms as a result of chronic inflammation and isolation of the infected area
An autoimmune disease of the thyroid whereby autoantibodies stimulate the TSH receptor, causing the increased the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormone and hyperthyroidism. Symptoms include an enlarged thyroid gland, protrusion of eyeballs (exopthalmos), a rapid heart beat, and nervous excitability.
Abnormal breast tissue development on adolescent boys or men usually because of an imbalance in hormones
A cell that contains 1 copy of each chromosome, giving each cell 23 chromosomes
A collection of blood in soft tissue or enclosed spaced.
The normal formation and development of blood cells in the bone marrow. In severe anemia and other hematologic disorders, cells may be produced in organs outside the marrow.
A disorder characterized by chronic premature destruction of red blood cells. Anemia may be minimal or absent, reflecting the ability of the bone marrow to increase production of red blood cells.
Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)
An alloimmunity disease also called erythroblastosis fetalis in which the maternal blood and fetal blood are antigenically (ABO or Rh factor) incompatible, causing the mother's immune system to produce antibodies against fetal erythrocytes.
A condition in which platelets aggregate within the kidney's small blood vessels, resulting in reduced blood flow to the kidney and subsequent kidney failure and destruction of the red blood cells.
A period during which blood or blood-stained sputum is spit or coughed from bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs
Hemorrhagic stroke (intracranial hemorrhage)
Stroke usually caused by hypertension that results in bleeding in the brain; typically increases intracranial pressure and may lead to death
Henoch-Schonlein purpura neprhitis
A condition in which small blood vessels are inflamed, causing bleeding into the skin and mucous membranes (purpura), hematuria, and gastrointestinal bleeding; abdominal pain; inflammation in the joints, kidneys, and testis; subcutaneous edema; and encephalopathy.
A condition usually caused by liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension in which toxins produced by the gut and not metabolized by the liver pass into the systemic circulation and damage brain cells, resulting in impaired cognition, tremor, and a decreased level of consciousness
A condition in which progressive renal failure occurs because of a decrease in renal blood flow associated with cirrhosis of the liver
Herpes simplex virus (HSV)
An infection that has an affinity for the skin and nervous system and usually produces small, transient, irritating, and sometimes painful fluid-filled blisters on the skin and mucous membranes. HSV-1 infections tend to occur in the facial area, particularly around the mouth and nose; HSV-2 infections are usually limited to the genital region
An anatomic abnormality in which the esophageal hiatus is larger than normal, causing part of the stomach to protrude through the diaphragm and up into the chest
A compound, found in all body tissues. Produced primarily in mast cells and other immune cells by the breakdown of histidine. Mast cells are more numerous in the skin, gastrointestinal tract, pulmonary system, and nervous tissue. It is released in allergic and inflammatory reactions. Cellular receptors of histamine include the H! receptors, which are responsible for the dilation of blood vessels and the contraction of smooth muscle; the H2 receptors, which are responsible for the stimulation of heart rate and gastric secretion; and the H3 receptors, which are believed to play a role in the regulation of the release of histamine and other neurotransmitters from neurons.
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL)
A neoplasm causing a progression from one group of lymph nodes to another group; includes diverse systematic symptoms and the presence of Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells
Recommended textbook explanations
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Cain, Campbell, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
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Miller and Levine Biology
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