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movements that keep both eyes fixed on the same target


rapid, jerky movements that shift your gaze from one point to another


movements that allow us to maintain a moving object


highest concentration of cones is found here; specialized in visual acuity


cells in the retina that connect adjacent ganglion cells with bipolar cells


cells in the retinat that connect photoreceptors with bipolar cells


theory of colour vision postulating that colour perception is a function of the relative rates of response by three types of cone photoreceptors, each sensitive to a different set of wavelenghts


theory of colour vision that fails to explain after images and blends of colours

Opponent Process

theory of colour vision stating that we percieve color in terms of paired opposites: red/green, yellow/blue, black/white

receptive field

the area of the visual field in which the presence of a stimulus influences the firing rate of that neuron; the part of the neuron in which light must fall to excite the neuron

ON Cell

stimulated by light falling on center; inhibited by light falling on periphery

OFF Cell

inhibited by light falling on center; stimulated by light falling on periphery


geniculate nucleus associated in vision; of the thalamus; relay point of vision signal between retina and primary visual cortex

Orientation Sensitive

neuron in the striate cortex that responds only when a line of a particular direction appears within its receptive field


Orientation Sensitive Neuron whose receptive field is organized in an opponent fashion; inhibitory region runs parallel to receptive field


Orientation Sensitive Neuron which does not possess an inhibitory surround; respond when line moves perpendicular to its angle of orientation; movement detectors


Orientation Sensitive Neuron that has inhibitory regions at the end of a line segment

High Frequency

sharp edges provide this signal

low frequency

image looks unfocused but we can still make out the form


the "what" stream; recognizes what the object is and the color


the "where" stream; recognizes where the object is and whether it is moving

TE and TEO

areas of the brain at the end of the ventral visual stream; damage here leads to difficulty in determining WHAT an object is

Visual Agnosia

the inability to recognize objects, persons, or shapes in the absences of blindness or memory loss


deficit in recognizing faces; face blindness

Fusiform Gyrus

area of the brain with special "face-recognizing" circuits


area of the extrastriate cortex that contains neurons which respond to motion

Area V5

area of the estrastriate cortex that contains neurons which respond to motion


inability to percieve motion; caused by bilateral damage to MT (or Area V5)


performs further motion analysis

Area V5a

performs further motion analysis

Optic Flow

the analysis of the relative movement of the visual elements around us; riding a bike, everything is moving on its own AND in relation to us

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