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Immunology with Gregory Weigel at UCF. This first chapter is a broad overview of what will be discussed this semester.
Terms in this set (45)
An organism invisible to the naked eye, especially one that causes disease
Characteristics of Microbes
-survive on animal & plant products
-release digestive enzymes
-can be extracellular or intracellular
When an individual survives a specific infection and then becomes immune to it
The time between initial infection and protection
How long is the average lag time?
Inoculation with an attenuated/killed infectious agent in order to provide long term protection against the pathogen
Who is credited with the origins of immunology?
What was the first "vaccinia"?
Cowpox prevented infection from smallpox
Any organism with potential to cause disease
organisms that cause disease only if the body's defenses are weakened or if it gets into a part of the body it isn't normally found
What advantage do pathogens have in the constant evolutionary struggle between the host and the pathogen?
Pathogens have very short replication (generation) times
What are the 4 kinds of pathogen that cause human disease?
Parasite (protozoa + worms)
What is the first line of external defense against infection?
more specialized tissues that are bathed in mucus and more vulnerable to attack.
thick fluid containing glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and enzymes
Physical Barriers of Protection
-mucosal surfaces & mucus removal
-tears & saliva have lysozymes
-acidic environments of stomach, vagina, and skin
poke holes in the pathogen
Two Parts to Innate Response
2. Recruitment of Effect Mechanisms
Series of proteins that act to tag an invader for phagocytosis by other immune cells or by poking holes in the microbe by completing the complement cascade
Process of inflammation
1. introduced pathogen activates effector cells to secrete cytokines
2. vasodilation and increased vascular permeability allows cells, fluid, and proteins to enter tissue
3. the infected tissue becomes inflames, causing redness, heat, and swelling
How do the innate and adaptive immune systems work together?
-direct cell contact
-interactions involving chemical mediators
Innate and adaptive immunity are required for a complete response to a pathogen
4 Types of Immune System Cells
1. Lymphoid Cells
2. Mononuclear Phagocytes
3. Ganulocytic Cells
4. Dendritic Cells
What is the main function of dendritic cells?
To present antigen to T cells
Lymphoid Cells Include:
T, B, and NK cells
Mononuclear phagocytes include:
monocytes and macrophages
Granulocytic cells include:
Neutrophils, Eosinophils, and Basophils
The generation of the cellular elements of blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
Pluripotent Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC)
the stem cell from which all blood cells arise
Hematopoietic Growth Factors
growth factors that influence the development and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells
What are the most abundant leukocytes in blood?
What is the second most abundant leukocyte in blood?
A general term for a white blood cell
A class of white blood cells that consist of small and large lymphocytes
adaptive immunity cells
Includes B & T cells
Large Granular Lymphocytes
includes only natural killer (NK) cells
3 classes of Lymphocytes
1. B cells
2. T cells
3. NK cells
resting cells that have not interacted with antigen
lymphocytes that have interacted with antigen and proliferate, eventually into effector or memory cells
cells that eliminate antigens
Types of Effector Cells
-plasma B cells
Natural Killer Cells (NK)
large granular lymphocytes that kill cells infected with certain viruses
Effectors of innate immunity that are specialized int he capture, engulfment, and killing of microbes
cells with highly folded membranes whose job is to activate T cells and initiate the adaptive immune response
Follicular Dendritic Cells (FDC)
hold intact antigens in specialized areas of lymphoid tissues
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