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27 terms

Isms

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Absolutism
Form of government where the monarch has total control. ex. Peter the Great in Russia or Louis XIV in France.
Anarchism
idea that NO government is better than any idea of government yet conceived.
capitalism
economic system based on free market, open competition, profit motive and private ownership of the means of production. encourages private investment and businesses. It is the development of Adam Smith's laissez-faire ideas outlined in his definition of capitalism, 'An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations'.
Cartesian Dualism
Descarte's belief that there is a divide between religion and science
Chartism
political reforms that would favor the interests of skilled British workers in the 1830s and 1840s
conservatism
The idea that all change is BAD, and it should be slowed or fought so it doesn't happen.
Darwinism
"survival of the fittest" theory to explain evolution in nature to social relationships
deism
The idea that there is an all-powerful entity who created the universe, but just stepped back to watch it work. the clockmaker.
Economic Liberalism
Always supported laissez faire, applied supply and demand to jobs-advocated by David Ricardo
Empiricism
advocated by Francis Bacon; believed in inductive reasoning ( going from a small idea to a big idea )
existentialism
20th cent. philosophy where each individual person is in charge of giving meaning to their own lives.
fascism
A nationalist system where the state and big business partners eliminate worker rights and any resistance to governmental or corporate power. aka nationalism on steroids. Ex: Mussolini in Italy.
humanism
Ideal of human possibilities that came from the revival of Greco- Roman literature or art, very influential on the Renaissance.
imperialism
the doctrine that says a powerful country can control a weaker country militarily, economically, politically and spiritually. Ex: England in India or Belgium in Congo.
liberalism
Originating in the 19th Century, based on the idea that political change can make a society better than before. It supported democracy, laissez-faire and the removal of the Corn Laws. Led to utilitarianism and the reform movement.
Lutheranism/Protestantism
challenge to Catholic Church asking for justification by faith, Bible as sole authority, no need of clergy to interpret Bible, etc.
Marxism
Devised by Marx and Engeks. The state owns the means of production and citizens contribute what they can to society, while society gives each citizen what they need.
mercantilism
based on the belief that a national economy has to be strong and self-sufficient. The country must be on the "favorable" balance of trade, where a country exports MORE than it imports. opposed by capitalists.
nationalism
the idea that everyone with the same language, traditions, ideas, ideals, culture, heritage, etc. should have their own nation, and love that nation.hu7
Political Liberalism
idea of Locke to achieve a free society governed by constitution that supported individual rights
Rationalism
advocated by Descartes, featured deductive reasoning ( going from a big idea to a small idea )
Revisionist Socialism
instead of believing that the proletariat should take power by violence it should happen through democratization of the government
romanticism
artistic movement in the mid to late 1800s. Depicted the beauty of nature and opposed the scientific revolution. "Sturm und Drang"= Storm and Stress
socialism
Idea that the government should manage the economy or aspects of the economy for the good of the people. Thought workers were unfairly treated. rejected laissez-faire and questioned the validity of the concept of private property.
totalitarianism
Idea that the government should control ALL aspects of the lives of the citizens. Ex: Stalin and Hitler.
utilitarianism
Jeremy Bentham's ideas; "the greatest good for the greatest number". Led to running water in England (and eventually the world)
Utopian Socialism
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