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RS Chapter 1: Introduction to Health Statistics
Terms in this set (41)
•What are statistics?
•A number computed from a larger collection of numbers which collectively constitute a sample of data
•A branch of mathematics concerned with collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analyzing data
Origins of the Term
•Originally, "statistics" referred to the collection of information about and for the "State"
•Italian term stato meaning state
Reasons for Studying Statistics
-In order to make decisions we must have some information
- In healthcare, we use statistics to:
•Find out why patients come to the facility
•Determine the cost of taking care of patients
•Determine the quality of care provided
•Meet requirements of accrediting agencies
•Comply with requirements of third party payors
•Prioritize needed services
•Maintain physician specialty mix
Transition from Data to Decision Making
Data → Information → Facts → Improved Understanding → Better decision making
•Data: Unprocessed facts and figures
•Data leads to information: Data that are deliberately selected, processed, and organized to be useful
•Information leads to the facts: A piece of information presented as the truth
•Facts lead to improved understanding: What we know
•Improved understanding gives individuals the power to make better decisions
-Provide information about the health of people and their utilization of healthcare services
-Figures used in statistics must be
--Applicability of the statistics
-- answers the question of whether one measured what one intended to measure and
--Consistency or ability to replicate of results
Descriptive Statistics vs. Inferential Statistics
-Describe what the data show about the characteristics of a sample
• Help us make inferences, or a guess about a larger group of data by drawing conclusions from a smaller group of data
--The smaller group of data is called a sample
--The results obtained from the sample are assumed to be typical
What is the primary focus of descriptive statistics?
to organize and describe the features of data in a study
Where Do We Get Health Statistics?
•Primary and secondary sources of information
-Primary = Health record, census, vital statistics
-Secondary = Disease and operation index, registries (e.g., cancer, trauma)
-A count of the people and their location (primary information)
-Keep a count of patients seen and the reason
•Vital Statistics (primary information)
NVSS is part of NCHS of the CDC
(see definitions below)
**Note: All data in the disease index comes from a primary data source, the health record.
Primary data source
A record developed by healthcare professionals in the process of providing patient care
What is one of the most important primary sources of health statistics?
•Refer to special group of statistics that record important events in our lives such as birth, marriage, death, divorce & fetal deaths
•HCF responsible for completion of birth, fetal deaths, abortion & sometimes death certificates
•Texas - FH responsible for completion of death certificate
Who Uses Health Statistics?
•Healthcare department managers
•Home health agencies
•Mental health facilities
•Drug and alcohol facilities
•Managed care organizations
add how each dept uses statistics
NVSS (National Vital Statistics System)
(National Vital Statistics System)
The National Center for Health Statistics, the US governmental organization responsible for national vital statistics and multiple national health surveys. Organizationally, NCHS is a component of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, one of the agencies of the US Department of Health and Human Services.
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
a division of the HHS, the national research center for developing and applying disease prevention and control, environmental health, and health promotion and education activities to improve public health
health care facility
Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)
a part of HHS, tries to make healthcare safer, of higher quality; and more accessible, equitable and affordable. AHRQ partners with HHS to make sure that the data and statistics are understood and used
A single encounter with a healthcare professional that includes all of the services supplied during the encounter
direct personal contact between a patient and a physician or other person authorized by state licensure and if applicable by medical staff bylaws to order or furnish healthcare services for the diagnosis or treatment of the patient
HH (Home Health)
provide care to elderly, disabled and convalescent patients in their homes
Managed Care Organization (MCO)
A type of healthcare organization that delivers medical care and manages all aspects of the care or the payment for care by limiting providers of care, discounting payment to providers of care, or limiting access to care
Health Statistics are dependent upon __
accurate reporting by those individuals responsible for the task
The CDC is the lead agency that
is responsible for protecting the health of the people of the US
The type of statistics that make conclusions about a population by drawing conclusions from a sample is called
Which of the following is a primary source of data?
inpatient census, vital statistics collected by NCHS, health record
The division of HHS that is responsible for administering the Medicare program is the
A secondary data sources includes
the physician's index
Which user of statistics has the primary job of supporting terminally ill patients and their families?
The NCHS Keeps statistics on
Vital statistics, such as births, deaths, and fetal deaths, in the 50 states and US territories
Which of the following is not a primary source of data?
disease and operation index
To be useful, the data used to calculate statistics must be
valid and reliable
To be reliable, statistical data must
be reproducible (and have some consistency)
Which of the following is a secondary use of a patient health record?
identifying patients that have a cancer diagnosis
Facilities may choose to pursue accreditation for their Cancer Registries with the _____.
American College of Surgeons (Commission on Cancer)
The type of patient who receives care in a hospital based clinic or department is called an
The number of inpatients present in a healthcare facility at any given time is called a
An international organization founded by the UN that is directing and coordinating authority on international health is called the
WHO (World Health Organization)
Aggregated census data or data
that have been clustered together that is made available to the public
is a patient who is provided with room, board, and continuous general nursing services in an area of an acute care facility where patients generally stay overnight
ambulatory care facility
is a healthcare facility that provides preventive or corrective healthcare services on a nonresident basis department or clinical are classified as outpatient
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