Terms in this set (124)
What is the function of the cardiovascular system?
About how much does the heart weigh and what is it's size?
Less than a pound and the size of a fist
Space between the lungs where the heart lies
The pointed end of the heart that rests on the diaphragm (it is directed toward the left hip)
Top part of the heart that is broad
Double-walled sac that the heart sits in and contains serous fluid between the layers to prevent friction
Inflammation of the pericardium that results in the decrease in the serous fluid
What are the 3 layers of the heart wall?
A thin sheet of endothelium that lines the heart chambers, it is continuous with the linings of the blood vessels (innermost layer of the heart wall)
How many hollow chambers does the heart has?
Receiving chambers, blood comes into the heart
Where are the atria located?
Bottom chambers that send out blood
Interatrial or intraventricular septum
Divides the heart longitudinally
Which side of the heart receives oxygen-poor blood from the veins?
The Right Side
Superior and Inferior Venae Cavae
The veins that bring in blood from the upper and lower parts of the body to the heart
Carry blood to the lungs where oxygen is picked up and carbon dioxide is unloaded. (Takes blood to the lungs)
Vein that brings blood back from the lungs to the heart
the largest artery in the body that sends out oxygenated blood to the body
How many valves are contained within the heart?
What is the purpose of the valves?
Allows blood to flow in only one direction through the heart chambers (from the atria through the ventricles)
Where are the Atrioventricula Valves (AV) located?
Between the atrial and the ventricular chambers on each side.
What do the AV nodes do?
They prevent backflow into the atria when the ventricles contract
What is the left AV node called?
Bicuspid or mitral valve
How many flaps does the bicuspid valve have?
What is the right AV node called?
How many flaps does the tricuspid valve have?
Set of valves that guards the bases of the 2 large arteries leaving the ventricular chambers
How many leaflets do the semilunar valves have?
three half-moon shaped cusps (flaps)
three half-moon shaped cusps (flaps)
When do the AV valves open?
During heart relaxation
When are the semilunar valves closed?
During heart relaxation
When the valve flaps become stiff
Bacterial infection of endocardium (Enlarges Heart)
Branch from the base of the aorta and encircle the heart
When the myocardium is deprived of oxygen and results in a crushing chest pain.
Heart Attack, heart cells die because of prolonges oxygen deprivation
Why are the walls of the atria thicker?
They carry high pressure
How much blood does the heart pump in one day?
It pushed the body's supply of 6 quarts of blood (6 liters) through the blood vessels over 1000 times, meaning it actually pumps about 6000 quarts of blood in a single day.
What are the 2 systems that act to regulate the heart activity?
1. Autonomic Nervous System
2. Intrinsic Factor
Intrinsic Conduction System
Sets the basic rhythm
On average, how many times does the heart beat per minute?
Where is the SA node located?
Where is the AV node located?
At the junction of the atria and the ventricles
Sinoatrial (SA) Node is also known as...
the pacemaker of the heart
Spread within the muscle of the ventricle walls
Describe how the Intrinsic Conduction System Works
1st the SA node (a tiny cell mass) starts each heartbeat and sets the pace.
2nd From the SA node, the impulses spreads through the atria to the AV node to cause a contraction
3rd Once the AV node is finished contracting it is passed though the AV bundle, the bundle of his, the bundle braches and the purkinjie fibers.
When the SA and AV nodes are not communicating and when there is damage to the SA node
What is the result when damage is done to the SA node?
Slower heart rate
Lack of blood supply to the heart muscle
A rapid uncoordinated shuddering of the heart muscle, major cause of death in heart attacks
Rapid Heart Beat (over 100 beats per minute)
Slow Hear Beat (less than 60 beats per minute)
When the ventricles contract
When the ventricles relax
Abnormal or unusual heart beat because blood is flowing backwards
Cardiac Output (CO)
The amount of blood pumped by each side of the heart (actually each ventricle) in one minute
Congestive Heart Failure
A progressive condition that reflects weakening of the heart
Clogging of the coronary vessels with fatty buildup
Blood vessels become swollen with blood, fluid leaks from the circulation into the lung tissue, if untreated a person suffocates
Shortness of breath
From heart to arteries, to aterioles, to capillary beds. These drain into venules, which goes back to heart in veins, then through the venae cava into heart
blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
the smallest arteries that connect with the capillaries
a network of capillaries
blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
How many coats or tunics are in the walls of blood vessels?
Why are the walls of arteries more thicker then veins?
They are continuously changing pressure
Are veins closer or farther apart from the hear?
Prevent backflow of blood (contained in veins)
the pooling of blood in the feet and legs and inefficient venous return resulting from inactivity or pressure on the veins, the overworked valves give way
Inflammation of a vein that results when a clot forms in a vessel with poor circulation
When a blood clot detaches and ends up in , clot (thrombus) or other material lodges in vessels of the lung
Largest artery in the body
the ascending part of the aorta as it emerges from the left ventricle
Name the branches of the ascending aorta
Right and Left coronary arteries
Left Internal Carotid
Serves the brain
Left external carotid
serves the skin and muscles of the head and neck
The first branch of the abdominal aorta, it is a single vessel with 3 branches
Left gastric artery
supplies the stomach
Supplies the spleen
Common Hepatic Artery
Supplies the liver
Left and Right Renal Arteries
Serves the kidneys
Serves the ovaries or testes
artery at the knee
Posterior Tibial Artery
At the ankle bone
Dorsalis Pedis Artery
At the top of the foot
Superior Vena Cava
Where the veins draining from the head and arms empty into
Which side does the Venae Cava enter?
On the right atrium
Inferior Vena Cava
Where veins draining the lower body empty into (below the diaphragm)
Single vein that drains the thorax
Great Saphenous Veins
The longest veins in the body (used for open heart surgery)
External Jugular Vein
receives blood from skin and muscles of head
receives blood from the arm though the axillary vein
Median Cubital Vein
Site for blood removal for blood testing, anterior aspect of the elbow
Serves the brain stem and the cerebellum as it travels upward
What is another name for Cerebral Arterial Circle?
Circle of Willis
Cerebral Arterial Circle / Circle of Willis
Blood vessels that surround the base of the brain, protecting the brain and providing more than one route for blood to reach brain tissue
Hepatic Portal Circulation
Drains the digestive organs, spleen, and pancreas and deliver this blood to the liver through the hepatic portal vein
Which portal has a unique and unusual circulation
Hepatic Portal Circulation
Arterial Pulse and Blood Pressure and Respiratory Rate
A pressure wave that occurs with each beat of the left ventricle
What is the pulse average beats per minute?
Points at the body surface where the pulse may be felt
The pressure the blood exerts against the inner walls of the blood vessels, it is the only force that keeps blood circulating continuously even between heartbeats
Pressure wave of blood that can only be felt in the arteries.
The pressure in the arteries at the peak of ventricular contraction
The pressure when the ventricles are relaxing.
How is blood pressure measured?
Millimeters of mercury (mm/Hg)
The amount of friction the blood encounters as it flows through the blood vessels
Narrowing of the blood, the major action of the sympathetic nervous system
What major role do the kidneys play in the cardiovascular system?
Regulate blood pressure by altering blood volume
What are the 5 effects on blood pressure?
1. Neural Factors: Autonomic Nervous System
2. Renal Factors:Kidneys
How does temperature affect blood pressure?
Cold has a vasoconstricting effect while heat has a vasodilating effect
How does chemicals effect blood pressure?
Drugs, Alcohol, Nicotine can increase blood pressure causing vasocontriction
How does diet effect blood pressure?
Foods low in salt and sodium can help to prevent hypertention
What is the normal systolic blood pressure?
110-140 mm Hg
What is the normal diastolic blood pressure
70-80 mm Hg
Low blood pressure with a systolic below 100 mm Hg
Temporary Low Pressure from suddenly changing positions
High Blood Pressure that is 140/90 of higher
What is the percentage of people with primary or essential hypertension?