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General History Vocab
Just some good terms to know when studying history!
Terms in this set (158)
The movement to make slavery and the slave trade illegal. Begun by Quakers in England in the 1780s.
people who speak or write in support of something
an associate; partner
a joining together for some common purpose
the formal act of acquiring something (especially territory) by conquest or occupation
A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war. Associated with Neville Chamberlain's policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler.
the act of distributing by allotting
settling a dispute by agreeing to accept the decision of an impartial outsider
A government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
The weapons and supplies of war with which a military unit is equipped
the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another; may be willing or unwilling
A government in which one leader or group of people holds absolute power.
a good person who offers help or donates money
A legislature consisting of two parts, or houses
showing strong, unreasonable beliefs or opinions, and a refusal to change them
an act or means of sealing off a place to prevent goods or people from entering or leaving.
United States labor agents recruited thousands of farm and railroad workers from Mexico. The program stimulated emigration for Mexico.
A 1956 term used by Secretary of State John Dulles to describe a policy of risking war in order to protect national interests
In the context of civil rights, the transportation of public school students from areas where they live to schools in other areas to eliminate school segregation based on residential patterns.
an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
A legal document giving certain rights to a person or company
Negotiations between representatives of labor unions and management to determine pay and acceptable working conditions.
A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
A system of organization among Christian churches whereby individual local churches are largely self-governing.
Protecting and preserving natural resources and the environment
A person who believes government power, particularly in the economy, should be limited in order to maximize individual freedom.
A preoccupation with the purchasing of material goods.
current, modern; from the same time
A group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War
A binding agreement
In colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World. Elsewhere in the Americas, the term is used to describe all nonnative peoples.
De facto segregation
Racial segregation that occurs in schools, not as a result of the law, but as a result of patterns of residential settlement
De jure segregation
Racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administrative decisions by public agencies.
a standstill resulting from the opposition of two equal forces or factions
Customers who have bought products on credit and will pay cash at an agreed date in the future
An excess of federal expenditures over federal revenues.
God is a watchmaker; The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws.
the removal of some government controls over a market
A policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the United States during the presidency of Richard Nixon.
The practice of conducting negotiations between countries
Reduction of armed forces and weapons
the belief that all people should have equal political, economic, social, and civil rights
the fact or process of being set free from legal, social, or political restrictions; liberation. IE: the freeing of slaves
an official ban on trade or other commercial activity with a particular country.
movement of individuals out of an area
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
enfranchisement (and disenfranchisement)
Being able to vote v. Not being able to vote
Powers given to the national government alone
(v.) to remove by cutting; (n.) an indirect tax on the manufacture, sale, or distribution of a commodity or service
The person who runs the government and sees that the laws are carried out
the state of being barred from one's native country, typically for political or punitive reasons.
Taking advantage of a weaker group
a small, organized, dissenting group within a larger one, especially in politics.
the dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants (villeins or serfs) were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection.
involving financial matters
a defensive wall or other reinforcement built to strengthen a place against attack
GDP and GNP
Gross Domestic Product and Gross National Product; the total value of all goods and services produced in a country
The "Good News," the story of the coming of the Savior, Jesus Christ, and the inauguration of God's Kingdom.
a writ requiring a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court, especially to secure the person's release unless lawful grounds are shown for their detention.
arranging things one above the other by rank
a tract of public land available for settlement
A belief that emphasizes faith and optimism in human potential and creativity
a party that values principled stands on issues above all else
To formally charge a public official with misconduct in office
of or relating to an empire
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service
Immigrants who received passage to America in exchange for a fixed term of labor
a person whose wealth comes from the ownership of industrial businesses and who favors government policies that support industry
having a bad reputation
inflation and deflation
Inflation: a consistent increase in the price of goods and services over time. During inflationary times, money loses its "buying" or "purchasing" power, and it takes more units of currency to purchase the same units of goods or services. Over time, inflation lowers the value of each unit of currency; Deflation: a consistent decrease in the price of goods and services over time. During deflationary times, money increases in its "buying" or "purchasing" power, and it takes less units of currency to purchase the same units of goods or services. Over time, deflation increases the value of each unit of currency.
A national policy of actively trading with foreign countries to foster peace and prosperity
between the states
within a state
a policy of remaining apart from the affairs or interests of other groups, especially the political affairs of other countries.
businesses formed by groups of people who jointly make an investment and share in the profits and losses
Policy that government should interfere as little as possible in the nation's economy.
a law or set of laws
A written defamation of a person's character, reputation, business, or property rights.
open to new behavior or opinions and willing to discard traditional values.
required by law
type of rule in which the military is in charge and citizens' rights are suspended
A person who is killed because of their religious or other beliefs
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Religious settlements run by Catholic priests and friars
the process of assembling troops and supplies and making them ready for war
A market in which there are many buyers but only one seller.
Journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
the process by which organizations or businesses become owned and operated by the government
the legal process by which citizens of one country become citizens of another
policy of supporting neither side in a war
people who wander from place to place
to counter; make unimportant
Devoted to or biased in support of a party, group, or cause
relating to a society in which men hold the greatest legal and moral authority
prions where prisoners were placed in solitary confinement to force them to reflect on sins and repent; high rate of prisoner suicides caused the end of the system
mistreatment or punishment of a group of people because of their beliefs
humanitarian; benevolent; relating to monetary generosity
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
A party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity
Having more than one spouse
an earlier event or action that is regarded as an example or guide to be considered in subsequent similar circumstances.
a branch of the Protestant reformation that grew in Scotland, many of their ideas are rooted in Calvinism. They believed in a method of church governance where there were no bishops
A belief that personal freedom and solving social problems are more important than religion
characteristic of an owner of property; constituting property
Undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800. The French began to seize American ships trading with their British enemies and refused to receive a new United States minister when he arrived in Paris in December 1796.
Favoring drastic political, economic, or social reforms.
called together for a common purpose; assembled
Formal approval, final consent to the effectiveness of a constitution, constitutional amendment, or treaty
A belief or theory that opinions and actions should be based on reason and knowledge rather than on religious belief or emotional response
A limited portion or allowance of food or goods; limitation of use
a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate
A person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster
Payment for war damages
to take back, or to cancel, a law
a demand for goods, usually made by an authority
Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.
a white Southerner who joined the Republican Party after the Civil War
person who wanted the south to secede
a part or division
resistant to lawful authority; having the purpose of overthrowing an established government
To separate or keep apart from others
A center in an underprivileged area that provides community services
A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.
The act of illegally importing or exporting goods
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
An involvement in risky business transactions in an effort to make a quick or large profit.
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.
a sum of money granted by the government or a public body to assist an industry or business so that the price of a commodity or service may remain low or competitive.
farming in which only enough food to feed one's family is produced
the right to vote
An economic philosophy that holds the sharply cutting taxes will increase the incentive people have to work, save, and invest. Greater investments will lead to more jobs, a more productive economy, and more tax revenues for the government.
A tax on imported goods
restraint or moderation, especially in regards to alcohol
A person who pays for the right to live in a residence owned by someone else
A fabric made by weaving, used in making clothing
restrictions to free trade
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
Betrayal of one's country
decreased income taxes for the wealthy would promote business and therefore the whole economy
Christian doctrine that stresses individual freedom of belief and rejects the Trinity
an ideal society
law or court order
the branch of government that makes the laws
of or relating to congress
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AP US History Review
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History Unit 1B
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