FTCE Art K-12
FTCE Art Knowlege study guide
Terms in this set (145)
Stone age art provides clues about the most basic elements of human culture at the very dawn of civilization.
Upper or Late Paleolithic
25,000 - 15,000 B.C.
The Panaramitee Petroglypher
43,000 B.C. Aboriginal abstractions from South Australia.
The Venus of Willendorf carver
30,000 - 25,000 B.C. 4.5 inch tall carved limestone figure, found in Austria. A fertility figure.
The Lascaux cave painter
15,000 - 10,000 B.C. Naturalistic pictures of bulls, horses, mammoths, lions and other animals painted in deep underground caves on wet limestone walls with powerderd mineral pigments.
The Stonehenge builder
2100-2000 B.C. Architecture consisting of huge blue stone megaliths from Wales to Salisbury Plain in England. Considered the mysterious celestial calendar that mark the summer and winter Solstice.
The Ancient World
Early civilizations developed an art of elegance and complexity.
Mesopotamia, 4000 B.C.
Egypt, 3000-330 B.C.
Greece, 1200-200 B.C.
Rome, 700 B.C. - A.D. 500
Mesopotamia, 4000 B.C.
God-kings, bearded bulls and ziggurats (giant stepped pyramids) in the cradle of civilization between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers.
Egypt, 3000-330 B.C.
Pharaohs, pyramids and pictograms. Costume jewelry around 1600 B.C. real gems were replaced with paste and cast-glass imitation.
Relief of Itwesh, 2475-2345 B.C.
Egyptian. A small limestone relief only 16 inches high. Carved relief words are juxtaposed with a surprisingly realistic profile of an Egyptian man, seeming to speak these words as in a cartoon bubble.
Static, symmetrical figures painted in flat colors, with the head and legs in profile and the torso that faces front.
Greece, 1200-200 B.C.
Samples, statues, paintings and pots by art's first Egoist, who set the standards of excellence that are the basis of all Western art, not to mention bank facades everywhere.
Cyclades - Bronze Age 2500 B.C.
Cyclades mean those in a circle is a Ring of Islands between the Greek Mainland and Asia Minor.
These artisans used white marble to carve highly stylized statuettes of skinny nude women with crossed arms.
Herring Bone design- 3000 B.C. - incised on Clay jars.
Birthplace of Western Civilization
900 B.C. - Greek culture, also the birthplace of individual freedom.
Decorated with geometric patterns, zigzags, meanders, chevrons, checkerboards, diamonds and rosettes.
Kouroi - singular is Kouros
Archaic Greek, Standing Youth. Large carved figures of naked young men, made to mark a grave or to honor a God. Stiff but strikingly realistic depictions of living men.
Korai - singular Kore
Female statues often draped and depicted with elaborate braided hairdos.
Aristotle - Greek Philosopher
Father of all Art Critics. Invented Aesthetics, a branch of philosophy dealing with questions of beauty and art.
Art is an imitation of reality, art holds a mirror up to nature.
Beauty is an objective quality of a thing, not a subjective response of the viewer.
Art should strive for unity of forms, without confusion or digressions.
Aristotle's Esthetics continued...
The goal of Art is to represent the inner significance of things, not just their outward appearance.
The function of art is catharsis, the purification of antisocial emotions and destructive impulses forbidden by society.
Art appeals to the intellect as well as to feelings, which if properly combined can give the highest form of pleasure.
Runs from the fifth century B.C. to the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. Widespread mastery of Anatomy, spatial illusion and naturalism in art, focusing on the depiction of the human body.
Sculptor. Famous for bronze statue Doryphoros, 440 B.C. Spear Bearer & The Cannon of proportions. Contrapposto, classical relaxed stance that puts the body's weight on one leg, as in Michelangelo's David.
First great master of Greek painting, Athens 480 B.C. . Innovative with painting hair different colors, expressiveness, women wearing diaphanous garments.
Contemporary of Polygnotus, nicknamed the Shadow Painter, first to give 3D effect by shadowing his figures.
Venus de Milo
Marble Aphrodite, sculpted by Agesandros of Antioch. Western symbol of female beauty during the nineteenth century. 6 foot 8 inches, housed in the Louvre.
Rome, 700 B.C. - A.D. 500
Rome conquered Greece and adopted its art, and made it bigger.
The Roman Era
The Emperor Augustus, 32 B.C. - his death A.D. 14. He established the tradition of arts patronage, promoting a revival of the classical Athenian style.
Middle Ages - Dark Ages, A.D. 600 - about A.D. 1350
Art and Artchitecture in Europe was devoted to serving the Christian Church. Lots of Gold, bright colors and precious materials.
The foundations of Middle Ages was laid during Constantine's rule, 306-337, which forged a new Christian art of MOSAICS, Ivories, and miniatures in the East, headquartered at Constantinople.
Art made during the reign of Charlemagne, Charles the Great, 768-814, and his successors that took as its model the art of what was then considered classical Rome, the fourth and fifth centuries.
Book of Kells
780, Hiberno Saxon, illuminated manuscripts that the Irish monks created, preserving scholarly traditions, such as learning Ancient Greek and Latin.
Otto I, ruled Germany from 900-1024. Main contribution was a consolidation of architectural principles. Emphasis on monumentality, big, bigger, biggest.
First truly international style came from the church, whose monasteries and church are marked by barrel vaults, striped facades and rugged, symbolic religious sculptures and ornament.
Medieval art and Architecture
Larger churches, height and size,better lighting, bigger windows, better circulation inside, more aisles and an ambulatory to go around behind the alter.
Literally means the style of the Goths, the barbarian hordes that destroyed the Roman Empire. Architecture, Church building,Known for Flying Buttresses and pointed arches, stained glass windows, and illuminated manuscripts. Age of the Great Cathedrals.
Paris, France. Gothic, Noted for its rose windows, flying buttresses, and gargoyles.
Late Gothic, 1330-1450
Ornament overcame clarity, cathedrals became encrusted with elaborate stone tracery, painted details, crested finials which are ornamental door knob. Flamboyant Style.
The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history. Fascination for science and mathematics.
Rebirth of Classicism and recover of classical culture of Greek and Rome. Religious subject mater and patronage began to decline. The church was no longer the only patron of Art,,
Lorenzo de Medici
1469-1492, "Il Magnifico"; most notable and most generous patron of arts and learning within the Medici family., Italian statesman and scholar who supported many artists and humanists including Michelangelo and Leonardo and Botticelli.
home of Pope, vital importance to the High Renaissance. Raphael and Michelangelo
An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.
Florence, Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens, 1510 (Rome)
Large scale and attached permanently to a wall. A type of painting that trap pigments in lime mortar before it sets.
True home of the Italian Renaissance where the revolutions started. Known for the Duomo, Cathedral and main museum is the Uffizi. Main Florientine artist include: Giotto, Masaccio, Michelangelo -before he went to Rome, Lippi father and son, Botticelli, Brunelleschi, Luca Della Robbia, Andrea Donatello and Leonardo
Leonardo da Vinci, 1452-1519
Inventor, engineer, artist and scientist, born in the town of Da Vinci, Italy. A true Renaissance Man who studied human anatomy and water movement, painter and sculptor. The Last Supper, The Madonna of the Rocks - Virgin of the Rocks. Mona Lisa, 1507.
Launched the Italian Renaissance by painting people who appeared three dimensional rather than flat. Painted famous frescoes cycles in Padua, Florence and Assisi.
Florentine painter who mastered sculptural form, perspective and figure groups in frescoes. The Tribute Money,
Florentine sculptor and goldsmith who spent 21 years making a pair of doors with 28 intricate bronze panels for the Baptistery in Florence.
Florentine sculptor, invented relief sculpture. best known for his heroic St. George, 1408, and his sexy nude statue of David, 1425.
Filippo Brunelleschi, 1377 - 1446
As an architect, he is mainly known for the extraordinary octagonally-based dome of the Santa Maria del Fiore, also known as the Florence Cathedral, which dominates the Florentine skyline. The task required an innovative supporting framework. He was also first to apply the Rules of Perspective to art.
Also called scientific or linear perspective. A mathematical system for representing three dimensional objects on a two dimensional surface.This requires a single fixed viewpoint and a distant vanishing point on the horizon.
Sandro Boticelli, 1444-1510
High Renaissance artist in Italy, a painter known for his love of the human form. Birth of Venus, and the Primavera, or Birth of Spring. Frescoes and religious paintings.
Italian for Like Smoke. A haziness that subtly softens outlines in painting; developed by Leonardo where different areas of color and form were subtly merged together.
The city of canals and gondolas with a number of palazzi and churches filled wit Art. Venetian art is know for its splendorous color. Titian, Tintoretto, Giorgione, Veronese, Bellini family, Jacopo, Gentile and Giovanni.
High Renaissance, Venice, A Renaissance painter in Venice, used vivid color and movement. Known for "Assumption of the Virgin," among others.
Italian painter of the Venetian school., "The Last Supper" 1592-94, Characterization was muscular figures, dramatic gesture, and use of perspective.
First master of the Venetian high Renaissance, made "Giorgeonesque" "Sleeping Venus"
Feast at the House of Levi - think: elongated scene, name changed from 'Last Supper' for Council of Trent.
Jacopo Bellini, 1400-1470
Venice's first Renaissance artist. most of his paintings were lost. taught his son's Gentile and Giovanni.
Gentile Bellini, 1439-1507
Important Venetian painter whose subject matter mainly concerned Venetian political and religious history.
The first great master of the Venetian Renaissance and a major painter of Madonnas and large altarpieces that span the period from the early to the High Renaissance. He was among the first to introduce landscape as an important expressive element in painting.
The movement in Art in Germany and Flanders that reflected greater religious tones. Emphasized Critical Thinking, Developed Christian Humanism criticizing the church & society, Painting/ Woodcuts/Literature
Jan Van Eyck, 1380-1440
Flemish painter who perfected the use of oil paints as seen in his The Arnolfini Wedding, 1434 and the Ghent Alterpiece, 1492.
A painted or carved work of art placed behind and above the altar of a Christian church. May be a single panel, triptych or polyptych.
A painting on thin wooden panels. Typically displayed inside a church as an altar piece. Innovation of the Renaissance allowing art to become portable.
Roger Van der Weyden, 139901464
Dutch painter from Early Renaissance period. Painted the Deposition, known for dignity and observation and obsessive attention to detail, emotion, and symbols of death.
Hieronymous Bosch, 1450-1516
Flemish painter who focused on the highly symbolic, known for fantastic and panoramic landscaped of a medieval world surrounded by devilish delights, as in his gruesome Garden of Earthly Delights.
Garden of Earthly Delights.
Bosch- triptych. serves as sermon, teaches lesson about eternal consequences of indulgence and earthly delights/pleasures, especially sexual sin. fear of hell used to discourage sin.
Albrecht Durer, 1471-1528
This German painter, engraver and theoretician combined Italian Renaissance techniques of realism and perspective with elements unique to the northern Renaissance, such as the use of oils in painting. Woodcuts, Adam and Eve, 1504.
Pieter Breughel, 1525-69
Flemish painter known for allegorical landscapes, seasonal panoramas, and peasant life such as The Wedding Dance, 1566
Artistic style, complex forms, bold ornamentation, contrasting elements, movement, Facades on buildings, convex/concave shapes, still life, genre, and landscape painting. Handling of light and shadow, two trends: Naturalism- Caravaggio.
Italian painter noted for his realistic depiction of religious subjects and his novel use of light (1573-1610), "The Supper at Emmaus, -Baroque artist who scandalized the church by painting street people often as bible characters. The CardSharps, 1595, depicts card playing with cheating.
Peter Paul Rubens, 1566-1640
Famous baroque painter influenced by Renaissance painters and known for colorful, melodramatic, and animated styles. Worked for Duke of Mantua.
El Greco, 1541-1614
Greek (lived in Spain) Mannerism. Painted figures with distorted body parts. View of City of Toledo, 1595
Greatest Dutch painter, who painted portraits of wealthy middle-class merchants and used sharp contrasts of light and shadow to draw attention to his focus. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer, 1653. Jewish Bride, and the Prodigal Son.
Jan Vermeer, 1632-1675
Greatest 17th-century Dutch painters renowned for his use of light and painted everyday scenes. Allegory of Painting; Officer and Laughing Girl; Girl with the Pearl Earring; and Young Woman with a Water Jug.
One of the leaders of the Spanish school, along with El Greco. He was a Spanish painter, to the court of King Philip IV of Spain, did many portraits of royalty. He commemorated a Spanish victory against the Dutch in his Surrender of Breda, Las Meninas or the Maids of Honor,
Art of the Boudoir, a style of architecture and the decorative arts that was full of fun, characterized by intricate ornamentation. Emphasized curves and moved away from geometric patterns. Science was replacing theology. Formerly the property of Kings, Art now belonged to the people. French Revolution, 1789.
Francois Boucher, 1703-1770
French Rococo painter, idyllic and voluptuous paintings on classical scenes.
Jaques-Louis David, 1748-1825
French painter, neoclassical style, had dramatic lighting, ideal forms, and clarity was emphasized.Served as a minister for Napoleon. He Painted: A Marat, Death of Socrates, Oath of Horatti.
Jean Ingres, 1780-1867
French Neoclassical painter.Aacademic painting, were recognized as his greatest legacy. He invented the Odalisque
A term used in the 19th century to describe a painted nude or semi-nude reclining woman. The term is taken from the word for a Turkish harem slave.
Gustave Courbet, 1819-1877
French painter who led 19th century Realist movement bridged with the Romantic movement with the Barbizon school and impressionists.
Jean-Antoine Wateau, 1684-1721
First great Rococo painter who rejected the grand subjects of painting. Depicted trivial picnics and costume parties. Colorist, technique of divisionism.
This French artist depicted the middle class and painted detailed furniture. Naturalistic still life. Ex. House of Cards
Rococo artist. "Mounds of pink flesh." Sensual paintings of nude mythological figures.
Famous for his painting of royal big shots, flirtation and courtships. So after the French Revolution, he was ruined.
Francesco Guardi, 1712-1793
Painted scenes of Venice with glorious views of the canal, palazzos and gondolas.
16th century Italy and 17th century French movement to revive classical attitudes towards art based on principles such as order, harmony, unity, restrained wit, and decorum this style of art. It literally means new classical.
Oath of Horatii, 1784-1785
Start of Neoclassicism and prominent painting by Jacques-Louis David. ,
Death of Socrates, 1787
Another by JL David which shows civic ideas of Greece and Rome.
19th century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason. Celebrated the artist as high priest and favored irrationality and emotion over logic. Dynamic, imaginative, nature, exoticism and pursuit of excess.
Eugene Delacroix 1798-1863
A French painter who was a romantic master of the dramatic, colorful scenes that stirred the emotions. Painted Ship wrecks, guys falling off horses, Lions eating people. The Lion Hunt, 1861
Antonio Canova, 1757-1822
Sculptor whose works looked like it's straight out of Greece. Antique mythological subjects. Cupid and Psyche. Favorite of Napoleon
Caspar Friedrich, 1774-1840
German romantic painter, paintings focused on the power and might of nature
Joseph Turner, 1775-1851
An English Romantic landscape painter and watercolorist, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism.
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be.
Thomas Eakin, 1844-1916
American Photo-Realist; famous for his portraits and genre paintings; best known for The Gross Clinic
Invention of photography, 1839
Niepce first to play around with light sensitive media; Louis Jacques Daguerre was first person to make an image 1839, , fixed a projected image from camera obscura onto silver copper plates.
First photographic process where a metal plate covered with a chemical photo-sensitive solution is exposed to light. This allowed the image to be made permanent. The result was a unique work of art which could not be reprinted.
Henry Fox Talbot
created the first paper negative to positive method called the calotype, 1839
Julia Cameron, 1815-1875
photographer, did many portraits with artistic experiments, used the collodian wet plate. Blurry victorian prints.
Paris, made the first areal photographs in a hot air balloon.
Eadweard Muybridge, 1830-1904
Realist photographer best known for his photographic studies of sequential motion, Galloping Horse.
Mathew Brady, 1823-1896
Famous photographer of the Civil War, brought the war to the people.
Alfred Stieglitz, 1864-1946
First modern photographer, Photography as Art. Straight Photography- Artistic truth, they seemed to say, lay in the unvarnished surface of details of the subject. Married to Georgia O' Keeff.
A French movement developed by visual artists who favored vague, blurry images intended to capture and "impression" of the subject. Marks of pure color placed side-by-side. Societe Anonyme Artist include: Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Edgar Degas, Mary Cassatt, Pierre-August Renior, Edouard Manet.
Claude Monet, 1840-1926
19th - French painter, founder of Impressionist school, great landscapes, Water Lily paintings. Waterloo Bridge, London, Sunlight effect, 1903
French painter and sculptor. Among his preferred subjects were ballet dancers and scenes of cafe life. Frieze of Dancers, 1883
Mary Cassatt, 1845-1926
One of the very few women Impressionist painters, she was an American exile in Paris. Painted sensitive portrayals of women and children that earned her a place in the pantheon of the French impressionist painters.
Auguste Rodin, 1840-1917
Created bronze sculpture of men. A Romantic, Realist, Symbolist, Expressionist. he brought emotions to sculpture, The Thinker, made with large feet, large hands, crying etc.
Edouard Manet, 1832-1883
One of his most important contributions to paintings was his unrelenting attention to the effects of light on objects in space. Bar at Folies-Bergere, 1881
French impressionist painter who captured the mood of ordinary people strolling around Paris. Voluptous nudes and lush summer landscapes in opalescent colors.
Named his pictures like music to emphasize their importance as evocative compositions of abstract elements. , Aesthetic Movement. Arrangement in Grey and Black No: The Artist's Mother, 1871
After the impressionist movement, a revival. An artistic movement that expressed world that could not normally be seen, like dreams and fantasy. Art movement linked to Gaugin, Van Go Gogh, and Cezanne
Paul Cezanne, 1839-1906
Father of Modern Art, painted a mountain over and over again, laying down a brushstroke at a time. Used only a few hues like yellow ocher, grass green, and sky blue. The Large Bather, 1898-1905.
Paul Gaugin, 1848-1903
Wild man and artist of bright colors and primitive mysteries. Went to Tahiti, died of syphillis.
Vinvent Van Gogh, 1953-1890
Vivid colors applied in a thick impasto. swirling brush marks distinguished his paintings. He sold only one painting in his lifetime. Starry Night, 1889
Georges Seurat, 1859-1891
French. Post Impressionism and Neo-Impressionism. Used dots of six basic colors to create his pictures, called pointillism.
Henri de Toulouse-Latrec, 1864-1901
Flamboyant, colorful scenes of Paris cabaret life, art nouveau-posters, died of alcoholism, stroke and syphilis.
A manner of painting, drawing, sculpting, etc., in which forms derived from nature are distorted or exaggerated and colors are intensified for emotive or expressive purposes. Artist include: Edvard Munch, Henris Matisse, Wassily Kandisnsky, Henri Rousseau, Paul Klee.
Edvard Munch, 1863-1944
Norwegian painter best known for expressing emotional distress as seen in "The Sick Child," "The Vampire," and "The Scream"
Henri Matisse, 1869-1954
An extreme abstract expressionist, Fauvist, leader of "the beasts," focused on arrangement of color, line and form. King of color.
Wassily Kandinsky, 1866-1944
Russian, He was the first abstract artist. He believed that art should speak directly to the soul.Composition 8, 1923, an improvisation inspired by music. Geometric shapes. vivid color.
Henri Rousseau, 1844-1910
French primitive painter, First Outsider Artist, vision was more Utopian. Fantanstic jungle scenes were actually postcards, illustrated magazines and stuffed animals used as models. The Dream, 1910.
Paul Klee, 1879-1940
Swiss German Expressionist Painter, used bold colors and distorted or exaggerated shaped and forms. Mask of Fear,1932, was influenced by a Zuni statue of a war god.
Gustav Klimt, 1862-1918
Austrian painter influenced by art nouveau, part of Vienna Cession movement, primary subject was the female body, romantic themes of love and life.
means hobby horse in French. Ready-made found Art. Meant as a response to highfalutin art movements. Popped up in several cities: Paris, Berlin, Cologne, New York and Zurich. Avant-garde goal was to make Art and Life one.
Marcel Duchamp, 1887-1968
Dadaist/ Surrealist, Fountain, LHOOQ, Nude Descending a Staircase, Mounted a bicycle wheel on a stool and called it art.
Modernist, Dada/surrealist, avant garde photographer, invented Rayograph by exposing objects directly on photo paper without using negatives, solarized prints. Fashion and portraits as well as abstract. 1920's to 1960's
free spirited, ordinary things are placed in mysterious relationships to each other. 1924-1930s, art form that appears real, yet dream-like or irrational
Salvador Dali, 1904-1989
Spanish artist; surrealistic painter. Wacked out dream images, melting watches, all painted in a meticulous style. Invented self-promotion. The Persistence of Memory, 1931,
Joan Miro, 1893-1983
Spanish surrealist painter Painted hallucinatory biomorphic abstractions.
Art with a mission, not just for art's sake. Russian movement of geometric shapes and use of industrial materials
Kazimir Malevich, 1878-1935
Russian artist who is known for the style Suprematism-(which he founded. His early work is inspired by folk themes, cubism, and futurism
Big business, big wall-size painting. Celebrated the angst ridden artist, dramatic and heroic struggle to creativity. Relied on classical myths and non-Western art.
Frida Khalo, 1907-1954
Mexican Artist, Marxist dedicated to Mexican Independence, married to Diego Garcia. Subject included self-portraits, female oppression and victimization, pre-Columbian iconography. The Two Friedas
Jason Pollack, 1912-1956
Action artist, dripping ordinary house paint from canvas. Meant to evoke a feeling or sensation. Autumn Rhythm, 1950. He led the New York School of painters?
Willem de Kooning, 1904 - 1997
A gestural abstractionist, would scrape off the pigment and begin again. He switched from brushy abstractions to wicked paintings of smiling demon women in the fifties. Slashing brushstrokes, red lips, big teeth. Woman and Bicycle, 1952-53.
Brooding floating rectangles of abstract color on large canvases. , ** -Abstract Expressionist who worked with the idea of spirituality in his work, he saw a close relationship between aesthetic experiences and spiritual experiences;
American school of the 1950s that imitated the techniques of commercial art (as the soup cans of Andy Warhol) and the styles of popular culture and the mass media
Jasper Johns, 1930
Pop Artist, Flags, targets, grade school graphics with numbers and colors. Make paintings that used irony, puns and word play. Three Flags, 1958
Robert Rauschenberg, 1925 -2008
Revived DADA by erasing de Kooning, ran out of canvas so he painted his bed. BED, 1955. Collected scrap to include in his art. Shop projects called COMBINES, things to be https://quizlet.com/52046106/edit#add-rowassembled or constructed, combination of paintings and found objects.
Celebrated banality and boredom in the form of soup cans, movie stars, and electric chairs. Invented the superstar and became one himself. 15 minutes of fame. 100 Cans, 1962, A leading figure in the visual art movement. His works expresses celebrity culture and advertisement in 1960's. Works: Marilyn Monroe Diptych.