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37 terms

test 4 ( diseases of the cardiovascular and lymph systems)

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ENDOCARDITIS
inflammation of the endocardium, or inner lining of the heart.
--symptoms: fever, anemia, abnormal heart beat, abdominal pain
ACUTE ENDOCARDITIS
caused by strep. pyogenes, staph. aureus, strep. pneumoniae, and neissera gonorrhea
--also caused by IV drug use, trauma, or Sx
SUB ACUTE ENDOCARDITIS
usually preceded by congenital malformation or damage to heart valves
--caused by normal flora of the mouth usually strep. mutans
treatment for acute and sub acute endocarditis
antibiotics for at least 1 month or surgery to remove infected clots
GRAM NEGATIVE SEPTICEMIA
occur when gram - organisms are actively multiplying in the blood.
ENDOTOXIC SHOCK
endotoxin released by bacteria activate cytokines which decrease BP to vital organs and lead to shock and death.
DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION (DIC)
endotoxins activate clotting factors which cut off blood supply and cause tissue necrosis and death
PLAGUE
caused by yersina pestis a gram - intracellular enterobacterium that grows best at 28 degrees C, the Temp of its flea host
Pla
protease that dissolves clots and destroys complement components
Yops
interfere with phagocytosis and the immune response
F1
forms an anti-phagocytic capole at body temp
BUBONIC PLAGUE
bacteria enter the regional lymph nodes, which become enlarged and tender buboes
SYSTEMIC PLAGUE
organisms spill into the bloodstream where endotoxin release causes shock and DIC
PNEUMONIC PLAGUE
infection in the lung can be fatal within a few days
TULAREMIA (RABBIT FEVER)
-aquired mainly from skinning animals, from insect bites, or inhalation
-caused by Francisella tularensis
-bacteria casues an ulcer where it enters the skin
LYME DISEASE
-slowly progressive syndrome that mimics neuromuscular and rheumatoid conditions
-caused by Borrelia burgdorferi-through the bite of a tick
-TX with antibiotics ; effective early
ERYTHEMA MIGRANS
a "bullseye" skin rash that develops in 70% of all cases of lyme disease
INFECTIOUS MONONEUCLEOSIS
(kissing disease)
- casued by EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS
-virus carried in lymphnodes where it infects B-cells adn causes enlargement of the lymphnodes and spleen
-infection of virus has been assoc. with certain malignancies
CYTOMEGALOVIRUS
-only causes disease in infants and immunocompromised individuals
HEMORRHAGIC FEVER DISEASES
-Ebola&Marshburg
-Dengue Fever
-Lassa Fever
-Yellow Fever
EBOLA & MARSHBURG
2 related viruses of the flavivirus family that are maintained in the cave-dwelling fruit bat
-virus in the bloodstream disrupte the blood clotting system causing massive internal and external hemorrhage
DENGUE FEVER
- caused by arbovirus or the flavivirus family that multiples in mosquitoes
LASSA FEVER
-casued by several related Arena viruses that are maintained in African rats
-transmitted by inhalation of rat droppings or from human secretions
YELLOW FEVER
caused by arbovirus of the flavivirus family that multiples in mosquitoes
NON-HEMORRHAGIC FEVER
-ANTRAX
-BRUCELLA
-CATSCRATCH FEVER
-MALARIA
-ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER
-TRENCH FEVER
-Q FEVER
ANTRAX
-caused by bacillus anthracis
-virulence factors= a capsule and an endotoxin complex composed of 3 proteins
3 proteins in ANTHRAX (virulence factors)
-Cutaneous Anthrax
-Gastroenteritis Anthrax
-Pulmonary Anthrax
CUTANEOUS ANTHRAX
skin infection
PULMONARY ANTHRAX
infection in lungs
ANTHRAX MENINGITIS
infection of CNS
BRUCELLA
-caused by members of the genius Brucella
-causes fluctuating pattern of fever called= undulent fever
CAT SCRATCH FEVER
-caused by bartonella henselee
-transmitted by being clawed or bitten by a cat
-usually in children
MALARIA
-caused by 4 species of protozoa Plasmidium that are transmitted by mosquitoes
-recurrent bouts of fever and chills and sweating result from the RBC cycle of growth and release
ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER
-caused by Ricketsia ricketsii
and transmitted by ticks
-spotted rash appears on palms, wrists, ankles, and soles
-Treat with Abx early
TRENCH FEVER
-caused by Bartonella quintana
-carried by lice
Q FEVER
caused by Coxiella burnetii
--harbored by ticks and spread by contact with products from infected animals
AIDS
end stage of HIV
-infection sometimes followed by NO obvious symptoms or only FLU-like symptoms
--the virus starts attacking helper lymphocytes (CD4) and impairs macrophages
-secondary infection usually is leading cause of death
---treated with highly active anti-viral therapy (HAART)