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WHG Era 4 - Expanding and Intensified Hemispheric Interactions, 300-1500 CE (MASTER)
Terms in this set (81)
Latin America, including regions of MesoAmerica and the Caribbean
the landmass made up of Africa and Eurasia together. This geographical expression serves as a helpful tool in discussing large-scale historical developments that cut across the traditionally-defined continental divisions of Africa, Asia, and Europe.
The ______ are made up of the continents of North America and South America, including neighboring islands, notably the islands of the Caribbean Sea. Until the twentieth century, most geography books classified North and South America together as a single continent, labeling them the "New World" ("new" to Europeans beginning in the late fifteenth century CE) in contradistinction to the "Old World," that is Afroeurasia.
A term used to describe a certain kind of
development of a human society characterized by advanced agriculture, long-distance trade, occupational specialization, and urbanization.
THEME 1: HUMANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT (ENV)
The environment shapes human societies, and as populations grow and change, these populations in turn shape their environments. (spIce-t)
THEME 2: CULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS AND INTERACTIONS (CDI)
The development of ideas, beliefs, and religions illustrates how groups in society view themselves, and the interactions of societies and their beliefs often have political, social, and cultural implications. (spiCe-t)
THEME 3: GOVERNANCE (GOV)
A variety of internal and external factors contribute to state formation, expansion, and decline. Governments maintain order through a variety of administrative institutions, policies, and procedures, and governments obtain, retain, and exercise power in different ways and for different purposes. (sPice-t)
THEME 4: ECONOMIC SYSTEMS (ECN)
As societies develop, they affect and are affected by the ways that they produce, exchange, and consume goods and services. (spicE-t)
THEME 5: SOCIAL INTERACTIONS AND ORGANIZATION (SIO)
The process by which societies group their members and the norms that govern the interactions between these groups and between individuals influence political, economic, and cultural institutions and organization. (Spice-t)
THEME 6: TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION (TEC)
Human adaptation and innovation have resulted in increased efficiency, comfort, and security, and technological advances have shaped human development and interactions with both intended and unintended consequences. (spice-T)
a sequence of rulers from the same family (sPice-t)
The most important theme of the postclassical era. Basically all regions of AfroEurasia are connected by trade, disease, war, etc.
This exchange of knowledge, culture, and technology among differing cultures resulted from such interregional activities as trade and conquest during the Middle Ages. Some examples of cultural transfer took place between Western Europeans and Muslims during the Crusades, and among the conquered peoples of the Mongol Empire.
land with different territories and peoples under a single rule (Islamic Caliphate, Song Dynasty, etc) (sPice-t)
The popular acceptance of a governing regime or
law as an authority; when people accept the authority of a king, emperor, president, prime minister, etc. (sPice-t)
the domination of one state or group over its allies (sPice-t)
This long-distance trade, conducted along the Silk Roads and across the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, contributed to cross-cultural diffusion by bringing merchants and travelers from various locations into contact. These trade routes helped spread scientific and technological traditions and artistic styles, as well as epidemic disease, such as the bubonic plague.
spread of printing
This spread from East Asia to the Islamic world and then to Western Europe, exemplifying the scientific and technological diffusion that resulted from Eurasian trade routes and the cross-cultural interactions of traders, missionaries, and travelers.
spread of gunpowder
This spread from East Asia to the Islamic world and then to Western Europe,exemplifying the scientific and technological diffusion that resulted from Eurasian trade routes and the cross-cultural interactions of traders,missionaries, and travelers.
This nomadic trading people based in the Middle East contributed to the growth of long-distance trade routes by using camels to travel through deserts in the Middle East and North Africa (Sahara). Arabs lived in separate tribal groups in Arabia prior to the introduction of Islam. Afterward, they spread their culture across the Middle East, North Africa, Central Asia, and Spain.
An adherent of the Islamic religion; a person who 'submits' (in Arabic, Islam means 'submission') to the will of God.
Muhammad (570-632 C.E.)
Arab prophet; founder of religion of Islam.
the one and only god of the Islam religion. _____ is the same god Jews and Christians worship, the three monotheistic faiths differ over HOW God interacts with humankind.
Where did Islam begin?
Book composed of divine revelations made to the Prophet Muhammad between ca. 610 and his death in 632; the sacred text of the religion of Islam.
Five Pillars of Islam
1. Faith: There is no God but God and Muhammad is his prophet
2. Ritual Prayer: 5 times a day; must wash away impurities
3. Almsgiving: Give to further Islam in the community and abroad
4. Fasting: Must fast during the month of Ramadan unless the person is physically not able to
5. Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime
Most Sacred place of Islam. It is the birthplace of Muhammad and location of Ka'aba. It is the holiest city in Islam.
Muslims around the world face this building during prayer. One of the 5 pillars requires every Muslim to perform the Hajj
pilgrimage at least once in his or her lifetime.
a supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government
Descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's uncle, al-Abbas, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad (founded 762) from 750 to 1258.
Expansion of Islam
The spread of Islam across the Middle East, North Africa, Spain, South Asia and Southeast Asia resulted from a combination of military conquest (particularly under the Umayyad and Abbasid Empires),Trans-Eurasian trade, and missionary activity. The area controlled by Muslim powers ultimately became known as Dar al-lslam, meaning "all under Islam."
The House of Wisdom
This institute of learning was established in Baghdad in 830 C.E. The House of Wisdom collected and translated classic Greek, Indian and Persian texts into Arabic.
an astronomical instrument for taking the altitude of the sun or stars and for the solution of other problems in astronomy and navigation: used by Greek astronomers from about 200 b.c. and by Arab astronomers from the Middle Ages until superseded by the sextant.
Arab sailing vessel with lateen or triangular sails; symbolizes the importance of trade in the spread of the Islamic faith.It is less technologically advance than the Chinese junks, but it was a ship more commonly used
holder of power,the military and political head of state under the Seljuk Turks and the Ottomans
Development of Arabic Numerals
Arabic numerals or Hindu numerals or Hindu-Arabic numerals are the ten digits (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). They are descended from the Hindu-Arabic numeral system developed by Indian mathematicians, in which a sequence of digits such as "975" is read as a single number. The Indian numerals are traditionally thought to have been adopted by the Persian and Arab mathematicians in India, and passed on to the Arabs further west.
Diffusion of Islam into Africa in the PostClassical era
Until about 1450, Islam provided the major external contact between Sub-Saharan Africa and the rest of the world. The civilizations that developed in this era were quite diverse - from the Sudanic empires of Mali, Ghana, and Songhay to the city-states along the Swahili coast in east Africa
This term relates to the period of time in European history between the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the rise of the Renaissance, roughly between 500 and1500 C.E. This era is also known as the Middle Ages.
Western European Feudalism
This SOCIAL system dominated Western Europe in the early Middle Ages. Under feudalism, serfs performed agricultural labor under the decentralized leadership of lords. Social status was determined by birth, and women had limited power.In the 12th century, a military code of conduct called chivalry emerged. Chivalry focused on honor, modesty, loyalty, and duty.
System that described ECONOMIC relations between landlords and their peasant laborers (called Serfs) during the Middle Ages; involved a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor or rents for access to land.
Developed as the principal for of agricultural organization in western Europe. Included the land, crops, animals, tools, and serfs necessary to produce the agricultural surplus which kept the system functioning.
This class of agricultural laborer worked for land owners in the European economic and social system of feudalism. Serfs had the right to work a certain portion of the land and keep some of their crops, but could not leave the land and were required to give the majority of their produce, along with gifts and taxes, to the land owner.
Roman Catholic Church
This division of the Christian faith was formally established in 1054 C.E. when it split from the Eastern Orthodox Church after a series of doctrinal rifts. The Roman Catholic Church recognizes the Pope as its foremost spiritual leader.During the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic Church wielded considerable influence over European leaders and politics.
This religious institution serves as a central home for a religious order, usually a community of monks. Monasteries have been an important feature of Christianity and Buddhism and they often serve an essential role in spreading or preserving learning.
This nomadic seafaring people, who flourished between about 800 and 1100 c.E.,conducted amphibious raids throughout coastal regions of Northern Europe from their base in Scandinavia. Vikings relied on their technologically innovative long ships to navigate open waters and narrow rivers better, which allowed them to conduct raids and expand long-distance trade routes.
This pandemic disease, also known as the Black Death ravaged the population of Europe after spreading from China aboard trading vessels during the 1340's. Some 25 million people died, causing massive labor shortages and helping bring about the end of the feudal system in Western Europe
Impact of the Black Death
Over 1/2 of Europe's population was dead, traditional feudal hierarchies were obsolete, religious hatred intensified, and people lost faith in the power of the church. The dramatic changes brought by the epidemic sped up social and economic movements that were already impacting Europe. These included a shift toward a commercial economy, more individual freedoms, and development of new industries.
The dome of Hagia Sophia is so large and high that, for nearly 1,000 years, it was the largest interior space of any cathedral in
the world, built by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian, later became a Mosque when Constantinople fell to the Turks in
These Central Asian steppe peoples were influential between about 1000 and 1450 C.E. The Muslim Seljuk Turks defeated first the Abbasids at Baghdad in 1055 and, by 1071, the Byzantine Empire.
This landform is made up of vast, semi-arid, grass-cover plains. ___ stretch across Central Asia, from Mongolia to the area surrounding the Caspian Sea. Technological developments, such as pastoral groups' adoption of the horse, allowed steppe dwellers from Central Asia to develop expansive long-distance trade. The Turks and Mongols are natives of the ____ region.
A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia.
This Mongol military leader successfully united the various Mongol tribes during the early 13th century C.E. He led the Mongol army on invasions throughout Central Asia, Tibet, Persia, and Northern China, where he destroyed Beijing in 1215. By the time of his death in 1227, ________ had founded the Mongol Empire.
This term, meaning "Mongolian Peace," describes the 13th century period during which peace, stability, and increased trade spread throughout the vast Eurasian territory ruled by the Mongol Empire.
This term refers to the territory or state ruled by a khan. "Khan" is the title used by some Mongol leaders, such as Genghis Khan.
After the Mongol expansion, _____ stretched across Asia, although the majority appeared in the steppes of Central Asia. Often, khans ruled by keeping local bureaucrats in place and collecting tribute.
This dynasty, founded by Mongol conqueror Kublai Khan, reigned over China from 1279CE. to 1368 CE. Under the _____, foreigners and Mongolians made up the civil service and Chinese subjects were legally separated from Mongols. Despite this discrimination, China enjoyed relative stability and prosperity during this time.
This Mongol military leader, the grandson of Genghis Khan, defeated the Chinese Song dynasty in 1279 and took control of the country. He established the Chinese-style Yuan dynasty, which legally separated Chinese and Mongol subjects.
This Chinese dynasty existed from 589 AD to 618 AD, and it ended what was known as the Age of Confusion. Under this dynasty, the Grand Canal was built and linked the Yangtze River with the Yellow River. The Great Wall of China was also rebuilt during this time.
This Chinese dynasty ruled from 618 to 907 C.E.Under the Tang, trade and scholarship flourished, and its capital city of Changan grew to be the largest in the world. Buddhism, supported by Empress Wu,initially spread greatly throughout China. However, a later backlash resulted in an anti-Buddhist campaign that weakened the religion's influence. The subsequent rise of neo-Confucianism was influential throughout East Asia
This Chinese dynasty ruled from 960 to 1279 C.E. Under the Song, Significant innovations in agriculture, trade, monetary practices, and manufacturing led to an economic revolution. The southern capital of Hangzhou became a powerful trade city and center of commerce. The Song navy became a major maritime power thanks to such technology as the magnetic compass and
Focus on: Civil Service in China
The bureaucracy contributed to China's stability because it generally stayed in effect even as dynasties changed. Regardless of who was in charge, the leaders generally depended on the bureaucracy to carry out the functions of government. And remember, since appointment to a civil service position was earned by a strong performance on the civil service examination, the civil service was a meritocracy (earned) as opposed to an aristocracy (inherited).
Tang and Song innovations
The technological, social, and cultural innovations from these dynasties included the first use of the compass; the invention of a water-powered clock,gunpowder, and printing press with movable type; the rise of densely populated urban areas; the growth of NeoConfucian thought; the use of stylized landscape painting; and the development of paper currency and flying cash, a form of credit.
Fall of Constantinople
During this chapter, The Turks finally conquered the last holdout of the old Byzantine Empire, the capital at Constantinople. The Turks changed the name to Istanbul and made it the capital of their Ottoman Empire. Fleeing greeks brought much of their artifacts and works to Italy, fueling a greco-roman fad in Italy (called the Renaissance)
Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.
Great Wall was rebuilt during the Ming Empire. Extensive repairs fortified and expanded the wall that had first been constructed during the Qin era.
This system of government is characterized by the concentration of government power In a capital or administrative hubs that exert control over broad geographic areas. ____________ became common with the emergence of major empires in Asia, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean .
This system of government is characterized by shared power over multiple regional political hubs. Examples include the ancient Greek and ancient Indian civilizations. ___________ declined as imperial empires emerged in Asia, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean.
the practice or policy of territorial or economic expansion
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