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37 terms

The Urinary System

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Blood Flow Through the Kidneys
Renal Aretey---> Segmental Arteries-------> Interlobar Arteries --------> Arcuate Arteries -------> Interlobular Arteries---------> Afferent Arteriole------> Glomerular Capillaries------> Efferent Arterioles -------> Peritubular Capillaries-------> Interlobular Veins------> Arcuate Veins-----> Interlobar Veins----> Renal Vein
Three Main Regions of the Kidney
-Renal cortex-a smooth area/most superficial region
-Renal pyramids-located in the medulla and has cone shaped pyramids that have extensions of the cortex (the base of each pyramid faces the cortex)
-Renal papilla-is the apex that is pointed towards the renal sinus
Urine Formation and Flow
Glomerulus----> Capsular space---> Proximal convoluted tubule---> descending loop----> ascending loop---> distal convoluted tubule---> Collecting duct----> papillary duct------> renal papilla-----> minor calyce----> major calyce----> renal pelvis-----> urethra-----> external urethral orifice
Nephron
Urine-forming structure of the kidney
Renal Medulla
Region of the kidney deep to the cortex; contains collecting duct
Renal Columns
Extensions of renal cortex found in between renal pyramids
Papillary Ducts
Urine Flowing through this structure drains into a minor calyx
Adipose Capsule
Located between renal fascia and renal capsule
Renal Papilla
Apex of renal pyramid
Major calyces
Urine flowing through this structure drains into the renal pelvis
Renal Hilus
Vertical fissure in concave surface of kidney through which blood vessels and ureters pass
Renal Capsule
Covers the outer surface of kidney
Renal Fascia
Dense irregular connective tissue that covers the adipose capsule and attaches the kidney to the abdominal wall
Renal Pelvis
Recieves urine from the major calyces
Renal Sinus
Space within kidney that is adjacent to renal medulla, contains calyces and renal pelvis
Minor Calyces
Cup-like structure that is located in renal sinus that receives urine from openings of papillary ducts
Renal Pyramids
Cone-shaped structures located within the renal medulla
Renal Cortex
Outermost region of the kidney, contains renal corpuscles
Urinary bladder
Detrusor muscle is the main muscle for this structure
Prostatic Urethra
Region of male urethra that passes through the prostate gland
Urethral Openings
Two openings in posterior urinary bladder wall
Spongy Urethra
Region of male urethra that passes through penis
Trigone
Area bounded by urethral openings and internal urethral orifice
External Urethral Sphincter
Voluntary skeletal muscle in urogenital diaphragm that allows passage of urine to exterior
Ureters
Carries urine from renal pelvis to urinary bladder
Urethra
Urine is excreted through this opening
Internal Urethral Sphincter
Circular smooth muscle that involuntarily controls passage of urine from the urinary bladder to the urethra
Internal Urethral
Anterior opening in urinary bladder that leads into urethra
Membranous Urethra
Region of male urethra that passes through urogenital diapragm
Afferent Arterole
Blood vessel that delivers blood to glomerulus
Peritubular Capillaries
Blood from the efferent arterole flows into this capillary bed
Glomerular Capsule
Structure that surrounds glomerulus and collects filtrate
Loop of Henle
Section of renal tubule that descends into medulla
Glomerulus
Capillary network within the renal corpuscle
Renal Capsule
Structure composed of glomerulus and glomerular capsule
Efferent Arterole
Blood vessel that drains blood from glomerulus
Vasa Recta
Capillary loops that extend from the efferent arterole and run along the loop of Henle (nephron loop) of juxtamedullary nephrons