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Final Lab Exam- Anatomy and Physiology 2

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urinary system structures
ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
kidney structures
renal capsule, renal cortex, renal medulla, renal column, renal pyramid, renal papilla, major calyx, minor calyx, renal pelvis, renal artery, renal vein
nephron structures
renal corpuscle: glomerulus, glomerular capsule, afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole, proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), nephron loop (loop of Hele): descending loop, ascending loop, distal convoluted tubule (DCT), collecting duct (CD)
urine
waste products that move out of the kidneys through the ureters and get stored in the urinary bladder
involved in the kidneys
maintenance of homeostasis
urinalysis
analysis of urine, determines composition of extracellular fluid and the state of kidney function
urechrome
normal yellow color (product of hemoglobin breakdown)
urine color: normal
colorless, pale yellow, dark yellow
urine color: dark yellow (cause)
dehydration, carrots, vitamins A, C, & B
urine color: normal or abnormal
amber/orange, yellow-green, green/blue-green, pink/red
urine color: abnormal
brown/black
urine color: amber/orange (cause)
bilirubin (bile duct blockage), carrots, vitamins A & C, riboflavin
urine color: yellow-green (cause)
bilirubin oxidized to biliverdin
urine color: green/blue-green (cause)
pseudomonas (bacterial) infection, chlorophyll-containing foods
urine color: pink/red (cause)
red blood cells/hemoglobin (tissue damage), myoglobin (muscle damage [large amounts can cause kidney failure]), beets, blackberries, rhubarb
myoglobin
oxygen-carrier in muscle tissue
urine color: brown/black (cause)
heavy bleeding, hemoglobin oxidized to methemoglobin, myoglobin
appearance: normal
clear
appearance: normal or abnormal
slightly cloudy, cloudy, turbid
urobilinogen test: normal
less than 1 mg/dl
glucose test: normal
negative
ketones test: normal
negative
bilirubin test: normal
negative
protein test: normal
negative (0-8 mg/dl)
nitrite test: normal
negative
leukocytes test: normal
negative
blood/hemoglobin test: normal
negative
pH test: normal
4.5-8.0
specific gravity test: normal
1.001-1.028 g/ml
urobilinogen test: abnormal
more than 1 mg/dl
glucose test: abnormal
positive
ketones test: abnormal
positive
bilirubin test: abnormal
positive
protein test: abnormal
above 8 mg/dl
nitrite test: abnormal
positive
leukocytes test: abnormal
positive
blood/hemoglobin test: abnormal
positive
pH test: abnormal
acidic (below 4.5), alkaline (above 8.0)
specific gravity test: abnormal
above 1.028 g/ml, below 1.001 g/ml
urine sediment
microscopic particles present in a sample of urine (another component of urinalysis)
urinalysis strip
tests color of urine
digestive system stages
ingestion, digestion, absorption, defecation
oral cavity to anus
oral cavity, lips, palate, tongue, pharynx, teeth: incisors, canines, premolars (bicuspids), molars, salivary glands: parotid glands, sublingual gland, submandibular gland, esophagus
stomach
cardiac region, fundic region, body, gastric rugae, pyloric region: pyloric (gastroduodenal) sphincter, pylorus
liver
falciform ligament, left lobe, right lobe, quadrate lobe, hepatic portal vein, proper hepatic artery, hepatic ducts (left and right), common hepatic duct
gallbladder and pancreas
gall bladder: cystic duct, bilde duct; pancreas: pancreatic duct
small intestine
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
large intestine
cecum, appendix, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anal canal, internal anal sphincter, external anal sphincter
fecal pig
number of liver lobes
4 lobes
liver function
secretes bile
bile function
aids in fat digestion
how food moves along esophagus
peristalsis
peristalsis
constriction and relaxation of muscles in esophagus
helps in activation of pepsinogen in the stomach
hydrochloric acid
structural parts of small intestine
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
important process of large intestine
reabsorbs water and electrolytes and transforms it to feces
end of cecum
appendix
pathway after the rectum
anal canal and internal and external anal sphincter
secreted by pancreas
pancreatic juice
ingredients of pancreatic juice
alkaline mixture of water, enzymes, zymogens, sodium bicarbonate, other electrolytes
alkaline
a pH base
zymogens
in active enzymes
triglycerides
fat
function of the spleen
controls blood volume
hydrolysis
enzymes add water to a large molecule, to split the molecule into smaller pieces so that the body can absorb it into the blood stream
lock and key theory
a substrate fits into its enzyme just like a key fits a lock
catalyse activity reaction rate: fresh liver and H2O2
quick reaction (5)
catalyse activity reaction rate: boiled liver and H202
no reaction
catalyse activity reaction rate: fresh liver and H202 and HCl
little reaction (1)
H202
hydrogen peroxide
HCl
hydrochloric acid
what HCl does to pH
it lowers pH
effects enzyme when livers is boiled
catalase is denatured
catalase: define
common enzyme fond in nearly all living organisms
catalase: function
catalyzes decomposition of H202 to become water and oxygen
gametes: define
haploids (half of chromosomes)
zygote: define
diploid cell
meiosis: define
production of haploids
mitosis: define
male and female gamete fuse to form a zygote
pathway of developing "baby"
zygote > embryo > fetus
male reproductive system
scrotum, testis, seminiferous tubules, rete testis, epididymis, ductus deferens: ampulla, ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, urthra, penis: glans of penis, prepuce
female reproductive system
mons pubis, labium majus, labium minus, clitoris, urethra, vagina, cervix, ovary
female reproductive system
uterus: body, fundus, endometrium, myometrium, uterine tube: infundibulum, fimbriae, ampulla, isthmus
female reproductive system with fetus
placenta, amnion, amniotic fluid, chorion, uterus, umbilical cord
graafian follicle
testis
epididymis
vasectomy: define
severs the ductus (vas) deferens
tubal ligation: define
uterine tubes are cut
spermatogenesis: define
production of sperm
oogenesis: define
production of eggs
stages of mitosis
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase/cytokinesis
mitosis: prophase
dark purple blob in middle
mitosis: metaphase
blob lines up
mitosis: anaphase
two purple lines and spindle fibers in between
mitosis: telophase/cytokinesis
cleavage in between cells
mitosis: prophase
mitosis: metaphase
mitosis: anaphase
mitosis: telophase/cytokinesis
mitosis
chromosomes genetic makeup does not change and the end result are only two daughter cells
meiosis
chromosomes of each homologous pair join and exchange portions of DNA (creating a new combination of genes) and 4 daughters cells are produced
meiosis: male lifetime
birth to death
meiosis I: female lifetime
starts at birth and every month until menopause
meiosis II: female lifetime
after egg is fertilized
# of viable cells produced: female
1
# of viable cells produced: male
4
mitosis: diploid/haploid #
starts with a diploid, ends with a diploid
meiosis: diploid/haploid #
starts with a diploid, ends with a haploid (i.e. start with 6, end with 3)
meiosis I/II

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