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renal capsule, renal cortex, renal medulla, renal column, renal pyramid, renal papilla, major calyx, minor calyx, renal pelvis, renal artery, renal vein
renal corpuscle: glomerulus, glomerular capsule, afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole, proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), nephron loop (loop of Hele): descending loop, ascending loop, distal convoluted tubule (DCT), collecting duct (CD)
waste products that move out of the kidneys through the ureters and get stored in the urinary bladder
analysis of urine, determines composition of extracellular fluid and the state of kidney function
urine color: amber/orange (cause)
bilirubin (bile duct blockage), carrots, vitamins A & C, riboflavin
urine color: green/blue-green (cause)
pseudomonas (bacterial) infection, chlorophyll-containing foods
urine color: pink/red (cause)
red blood cells/hemoglobin (tissue damage), myoglobin (muscle damage [large amounts can cause kidney failure]), beets, blackberries, rhubarb
microscopic particles present in a sample of urine (another component of urinalysis)
oral cavity to anus
oral cavity, lips, palate, tongue, pharynx, teeth: incisors, canines, premolars (bicuspids), molars, salivary glands: parotid glands, sublingual gland, submandibular gland, esophagus
cardiac region, fundic region, body, gastric rugae, pyloric region: pyloric (gastroduodenal) sphincter, pylorus
falciform ligament, left lobe, right lobe, quadrate lobe, hepatic portal vein, proper hepatic artery, hepatic ducts (left and right), common hepatic duct
cecum, appendix, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anal canal, internal anal sphincter, external anal sphincter
ingredients of pancreatic juice
alkaline mixture of water, enzymes, zymogens, sodium bicarbonate, other electrolytes
enzymes add water to a large molecule, to split the molecule into smaller pieces so that the body can absorb it into the blood stream
male reproductive system
scrotum, testis, seminiferous tubules, rete testis, epididymis, ductus deferens: ampulla, ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, urthra, penis: glans of penis, prepuce
female reproductive system
mons pubis, labium majus, labium minus, clitoris, urethra, vagina, cervix, ovary
female reproductive system
uterus: body, fundus, endometrium, myometrium, uterine tube: infundibulum, fimbriae, ampulla, isthmus
female reproductive system with fetus
placenta, amnion, amniotic fluid, chorion, uterus, umbilical cord
chromosomes of each homologous pair join and exchange portions of DNA (creating a new combination of genes) and 4 daughters cells are produced
meiosis: diploid/haploid #
starts with a diploid, ends with a haploid (i.e. start with 6, end with 3)
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