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81 terms

Delmar Medical Terminology: Ch. 3

Allied Med 500
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Acetabulum
Large circular cavity in each side of the pelvis that articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint.
Ankyl/o
Crooked, bent, or stiff
Chondr/o
Cartilage
Cost/o
Rib
Crani/o
Skull
-desis
Surgical fixation of bone or joint
Kyph/o
Hump
Lord/o
Bent backward
Scoli/o
Curved
Spondyl/o
Vertebrae
Oss/e, Oss/i, Oste/o, Ost/o
Bone
Allogenic
Originating within another
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Form of rheumatoid arthritis that primarily causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae
Arthodesis
Surgical fusion of two bones to stiffen a join, such as an ankle, elbow, or shoulder. Done to treat severe arthritis or damaged joint.
Arthrolysis
Surgical loosening of an ankylosed joint
Arthroscopy
Visual examination of the internal structure of a joint
Autologous
Originating within an individual
Bone Marrow Transplant/BMT
Healthy bone marrow stem cells are transfused into recipient's blood. These cells migrate to the spongy bone , where they multiply to form cancer-free red bone marrow
Chondroma
Slow growing benign derived from cartilage cells
Chondromalacia
Abnormal softening of cartilage
Comminuted fracture
Fracture in which bone is splintered or crushed
Compression fracture
Occurs when bone is pressed together on itself.
Costochondritis
Inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum
Craniostenosis
Malformation of the skull due to the premature closure of the skull sutures
Crepitation
Grating sound heard when the ends of a broken bone move together
Dual X-ray Absorptiometry/DXA
Low-exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips to measure bone density
Fibrous Dysplasia
Bone disorder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous tissue, which leads to uneven growth, brittleness, and deformity of the affected bones.
Hallux Valgus
Abnormal enlargement of the join tat the base of the great toe
Fracture/fx
Broken bone
Hemarthrosis
Blood within a joint. Due to injury, hemophilia or to patients on blood-thinning meds.
Hemopoietic
Pertaining to the formation of blood cells
Open Reduction Internal Fixation/ORIF
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Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
Autoimmune disorder that affects children aged 16 years or less with symptoms that include stiffness, pain, joint welling, skin rash, fever, slowed growth a, and fatigue.
Kyphosis
Abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side.
Laminectomy
Surgical removal of a lamina, or posterior portion, of a vertebra
Lordosis
Abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine bent backward
Lumbago
Pain of the lumbar region of the spine
Malleolus
Rounded bony protuberance on each side of the ankle
Manubrium
Bony structure that forms the upper part of the sternum
Metacarpals
Five bones that form palm of the hand
Metatarsals
Bones that form the part of the foot to which toes are attached
Myeloma
Type of cancer that occurs in blood-making cells found in the red bone marrow
Open Fracture
One in which the bone is broken and there is an open wound in the skin
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug/ NSAID
Relieve mild to moderate pain and reduce inflammation; ex. Ibuprofen and naproxen
Orthopedic Surgeon
Physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles
Orthotic
Mechanical appliance, such as a leg brace or splint, that is specially designed to control, correct, or compensate for impaired limb function
Osteitis
Inflammation of bone
Osteoarthritis/OA
Wear-and-tear arthritis, degenerative desease that is characterized by wearing away of the articular cartilage within the joints.
Osteochondroma
Benign bony projection covered with cartilage
Osteoclasis
Surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity
Osteomalacia
Abnormal softening of bones in adults
Osteomyelitis
Inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone
Osteonecrosis
Death of bone tissue due to lack of insufficient blood supply
Osteopenia
Thinner than average bone density in a young person
Osteoporosis
Marked loss of bone density and an increase in bone porosity that is frequently associated with aging.
Osteorrhaphy
Surgical suturing, or wiring together, of bones
Paget's disease
Bone disease of unknown cause. Characterized by the excessive breakdown of bone tissue followed by abnormal bone formation. New bone is structurally enlarged but weakened and filled with new blood vessels.
Partial Knee Replacement/PKR
Procedure in which only part of the knee is replaced
Pathologic Fracture
Weakened bone breaks under normal strain. Bones weakened by osteoporosis or to a disease process like cancer
Percutaneous Vertebroplasty
Bone cement is injected to stabilize compression fractures within the spinal column
Periostitis
Inflammation of the periosteum
Podiatrist
Holds a Doctor of Podiatry degree and specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the foot
Prosthesis
Substitute for a diseased or missing body part
Rheumatoid Arthritis/RA
Chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of other body systems are attacked
Rickets
Deficiency disease occurring in children
Scoliosis
Abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
Spina bifida
Congenital defect that occurs during early pregnancy when the spinal canal fails to close completely around the spinal cord to protect it
Spiral fracture
Fracture in which the bone has been twisted apart
Spondylolisthesis
Forward slipping movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra or sacrum below it.
Spondylosis
Degenerative disorder that can cause the loss of normal spinal structure and function
Subluxation
Partial displacement of a bone from it joint
Synovectomy
Surgical removal of a synovial membrane from a joint.
Total Hip Replacement/THR
Plastic lining is fitted into acetabulum and head of femur is removed and replaced with a metal ball attached with a metal shaft that is fitted into the femur
Total Knee Replacement/TKR
All parts of the knee were replaced
Vertebra/Vertebrae
Bony structure units of the spinal column
Burs/o
Bursa, fibrous sac that acts as cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction
Synovi/o, Synov/o
Synovial membrane
Calcium Drug Classification
Treat and prevent hypocalcemia; ex. Calcium Carbonate, Calcium Citrate
Bone Reabsorption (or resorption) Inhibitor Drug Classification
Decreases release of enzyme that causes bone cell breakdown; ex. Alendronate, ibanodronate (boniva)
Opioid Drug Classification
Relieve moderate to severe pain; ex. Fentanyl, hydromorphone, meperidine (Demerol), Morphine, Propoxyphene hydrochloride
Salicylate Drug Classification
Relieve mild to moderate pain and reduce inflammation; ex. aspirin