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41 terms

19th Century and the "Age of Isms"

Liberalism, Nationalism, Conservatism, Marxism & the revolutions of 1848
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Liberalism
advocating the ideas of liberty, equality, and human rights
Adam Smith
Wealth of Nations: championed laissez-faire economics
David Ricardo
Iron Law of Wages: stated that a plentiful supply of workers would keep wages low, to the detriment of the working class
Thomas Malthus
believed human population would outstrip the food supply resulting in massive famines
John Stuart Mill
On Liberty: argued for absolute freedom of opinion to be protected from government censorship
Nationalism
awareness of being part of a community that has common institutions, traditions, language and customs- often results in an us vs. them mentality
Johann Gottfried Herder
regarded as father of modern nationalism
Irish Problem
Irish nationalists wanted independance from England
Conservatism
a reaction to liberalism and a popular alternative for those frightened by the violence, terror, and social disorder of the French Revolution
Metternich
Austrian Minister- Conservatism
Congress of Vienna
agreed to establish a balance of power in Europe to ensure one nation, like France, would ever be strong enough to control the entire continent
Metternich System
-censorship of speech and press
-used secret police and spies to establish control
-goal was to suppress revolutionary and nationalistic movements
Carlsbad Decrees
The German confederation, under Metternich control, were forced to adopt banning the freedom of speech and the press
Six Acts
England following the Metternich System passed attempting to prevent radicals from agitating and to give the authorities more power
*basically prevented communication
July Revolution
1830- sparked when Charles X suspended the legislature, limited the right to vote, and restricted the press
*angry student and workers rioted for 3 days in Paris forcing Charles X to abdicate the throne and flee to Britain
Louis Philipe
named king following the July Revolution- known as the "Citizen King"
Metternich
"When France sneezes, Europe catches a cold."
Sadler Committee
discovered that children were regularly beaten and abused by factory owners leading to various reform laws
Luddites
smashed machines and burned factories to preserve jobs- they were either hanged or sent to penal colonies in Australia
1673 Test Act
repealed in 1829- banned non-Anglicans from serving in public offices
Catholic Emancipation Act
granted full civil rights to Roman Catholics
Reform Bill of 1832
-sought to increase number of voters from 6% to 12%
-sought to eliminate underpopulated rural electoral districts
Factory Act of of 1831
no child labor under age 9
10 Hour Act of 1847
limited work hours of women and children to 10 hours per day
Navigation Laws
repealed in 1849 officially ended mercantilism *laws had been in effect since te days of Oliver Crowell in the 1650s
Victorian Era
period of Queen Victoria's relatively peaceful reign
Socialism
state, rather than private, ownership of the means of production.
Goal was a society that operated for the welfare of all people
Henri Comte de Saint Simon
A French socialist who called for the end of private property
Robert Owen
English industrialist who paid high wages, reduced working hours, ended child labor, built decent homes for workers, provided education, and allowed workers to share in profits
Louis Blanc
believed government should provide work for the unemployed in government-sponsored projects
Friedrich Engels
wrote the Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx
Karl Marx
Communist Manifesto- pamphlet written tht called for a worldwide revolution to end the abuses of capitalism
Marxism
-economic view of history, class struggle, inevitability of revolution, surplus value, and a communist society
Proletarait
the working class
Bourgeoisie
factory owners
February Revolution
King Louis Philippe forced to abdicate his throne in February 1848
National Workshops
established to provide work for the unemployed
June Days Revolution
Cause: the government closed the national workshops
-marked the beginning of class warfare in France between factory owners and the working class- Louis Napoleon became Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
rebuilt roads, canals, and railroads
supported the transportation of Paris into a modern city
legalized unions and allowed them the right to strike
Fredrick William IV
of Prussia- rejected the liberal constitution claiming divine right as king "I will not accept the crown from the gutter."
Britain
least affected by the 1848 Revolutions