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Liberalism, Nationalism, Conservatism, Marxism & the revolutions of 1848


advocating the ideas of liberty, equality, and human rights

Adam Smith

Wealth of Nations: championed laissez-faire economics

David Ricardo

Iron Law of Wages: stated that a plentiful supply of workers would keep wages low, to the detriment of the working class

Thomas Malthus

believed human population would outstrip the food supply resulting in massive famines

John Stuart Mill

On Liberty: argued for absolute freedom of opinion to be protected from government censorship


awareness of being part of a community that has common institutions, traditions, language and customs- often results in an us vs. them mentality

Johann Gottfried Herder

regarded as father of modern nationalism

Irish Problem

Irish nationalists wanted independance from England


a reaction to liberalism and a popular alternative for those frightened by the violence, terror, and social disorder of the French Revolution


Austrian Minister- Conservatism

Congress of Vienna

agreed to establish a balance of power in Europe to ensure one nation, like France, would ever be strong enough to control the entire continent

Metternich System

-censorship of speech and press
-used secret police and spies to establish control
-goal was to suppress revolutionary and nationalistic movements

Carlsbad Decrees

The German confederation, under Metternich control, were forced to adopt banning the freedom of speech and the press

Six Acts

England following the Metternich System passed attempting to prevent radicals from agitating and to give the authorities more power
*basically prevented communication

July Revolution

1830- sparked when Charles X suspended the legislature, limited the right to vote, and restricted the press
*angry student and workers rioted for 3 days in Paris forcing Charles X to abdicate the throne and flee to Britain

Louis Philipe

named king following the July Revolution- known as the "Citizen King"


"When France sneezes, Europe catches a cold."

Sadler Committee

discovered that children were regularly beaten and abused by factory owners leading to various reform laws


smashed machines and burned factories to preserve jobs- they were either hanged or sent to penal colonies in Australia

1673 Test Act

repealed in 1829- banned non-Anglicans from serving in public offices

Catholic Emancipation Act

granted full civil rights to Roman Catholics

Reform Bill of 1832

-sought to increase number of voters from 6% to 12%
-sought to eliminate underpopulated rural electoral districts

Factory Act of of 1831

no child labor under age 9

10 Hour Act of 1847

limited work hours of women and children to 10 hours per day

Navigation Laws

repealed in 1849 officially ended mercantilism *laws had been in effect since te days of Oliver Crowell in the 1650s

Victorian Era

period of Queen Victoria's relatively peaceful reign


state, rather than private, ownership of the means of production.
Goal was a society that operated for the welfare of all people

Henri Comte de Saint Simon

A French socialist who called for the end of private property

Robert Owen

English industrialist who paid high wages, reduced working hours, ended child labor, built decent homes for workers, provided education, and allowed workers to share in profits

Louis Blanc

believed government should provide work for the unemployed in government-sponsored projects

Friedrich Engels

wrote the Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx

Karl Marx

Communist Manifesto- pamphlet written tht called for a worldwide revolution to end the abuses of capitalism


-economic view of history, class struggle, inevitability of revolution, surplus value, and a communist society


the working class


factory owners

February Revolution

King Louis Philippe forced to abdicate his throne in February 1848

National Workshops

established to provide work for the unemployed

June Days Revolution

Cause: the government closed the national workshops
-marked the beginning of class warfare in France between factory owners and the working class- Louis Napoleon became Emperor Napoleon III

Napoleon III

rebuilt roads, canals, and railroads
supported the transportation of Paris into a modern city
legalized unions and allowed them the right to strike

Fredrick William IV

of Prussia- rejected the liberal constitution claiming divine right as king "I will not accept the crown from the gutter."


least affected by the 1848 Revolutions

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