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recombinant DNA technology

a process of introducing specific genes from one organism into another

transgenic organism

an organism with a gene from another species

restriction enzymes

enzymes that cut DNA molecules at specific sites and have become one of the basic tools of molecular biology.

polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

a process that enables scientists to make many copies (molecular clones) of the isolated DNA

DNA fingerprinting

analysis of fragments of DNA as a form of identification, used often in the criminal justice system

human genome

The scientific description of the complete set of DNA in the human organism, including gene locations


a technique used to sort and separate large and small DNA fragments by size

gene mapping

technique that uses recombination frequencies to determine where the genes are located on the chromosomes.

restriction endonucleases

enzymes that help manipulate DNA molecules. They recognize a specific DNA sequence and cut the DNA at or near that site.


digestion of a nucleic acid (DNA)


Cutting (digesting) requires energy in the form of ATP and involves a physical cleaving of chemical bonds


sequence reads the same back and front. Most of the specific recognition sites where the cuts happen occur in-

base pair (bp)

a pair of complementary nitrogenous bases in a DNA molecule


relatively small extrachromosomal and circular molecule of DNA found in bacteria and yeasts (pUC 19)


mapping the DNA fragments produced by restriction enzymes

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