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Terms and concepts that may be helpful in preparing for the New York State Liberal Arts and Science Test (LAST), Historical and Social Scientific Awareness section.

Casablanca Conference

A WWII wartime conference held at Casablanca, Morocco that was attended by de Gaulle, Churchill, and FDR. The Allies demanded the unconditional surrender of the Axis.

The Cold War

refers to the period following WWII until the collapse of the Soviet Union in the 1990s.This was a period when much of the world was divided by the communist/non-communist battle for military and political superiority. While the USA and the USSR were unquestionably the world's two superpowers, they avoided direct military conflict. Instead, they sought to bring other countries into their fold.

Joseph Stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 1962, When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.


French word meaning an easing of tensions between the world's superpowers during the Cold War

Berlin Wall

a wall separating East Germany (controlled by Russia) and West Germany (controlled by Britain, France, and America) built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West. Fell in 1989.

Treaty on European Union

final negotiations on December 9, 1991 between the members of the European Community It led to the creation of the European Union and was the result of separate negotiations on monetary union and on political union. was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands


having absolute unchecked power; dictatorial; N. autocrat, autocracy

hacienda system

similar to the feudal system, Natives got money and had to buy their products from their owners, Replaced the Economienda system.

King James I

1566-1625 King of England who, in 1606, gave the Virginia Company of London a charger to set up a colony in Virginia

proprietary colonies

colonies owned by and under the authority of persons who had been given a royal charter to own the land


a legal document giving certain rights to a person or company


Those who wanted to break all connections with the Church of England as opposed to most Puritans who believed it was possible to reform the church; the Pilgrims were Separatists.

Cape Cod

Landform in Massachusetts at 40 degrees N. Looks like a fishhook, Pilgrims landed there in 1620

Massachusetts Bay Company

joint-stock company chartered by Charles I in 1629. It was controlled by Non-Separatists who took the charter with them to New England and, in effect, converted it into a written constitution for the colony.

Anne Hutchinson

Disagreed with the Puritan Church in Massachusetts Bay Colony. Her actions resulted in her banishment from the colony, and she later took part in the formation of Portsmouth, Rhode Island.

Sugar Act

law passed by the British Parliament setting taxes on molasses and sugar imported by the American colonies

Stamp Act Congress

A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.

Charles Townsend

government official, sponsored unfair taxes on American colonies such as paint, lead tea , glass, paper

Boston Tea Party

protest against British taxes, including the tea tax, in which the Sons of Liberty boarded British ships and dumped tea into Boston Harbor in 1773

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