Upgrade to remove ads
Chapter 37, 38, 39 Vocabulary APUSH
Terms in this set (77)
34th U.S. President. 1953-1961. Republican
controversial Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (1953-1969); he led the Court in far-reaching racial, social, and political rulings, including school desegregation and protecting rights of persons accused of crimes; presided over the Brown v. the Board of Education case
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
Ngo Dinh Diem
South Vietnamese president that was catholic and strongly opposed communism. His poor leadership and corrupt government spelled doom
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Arab leader, set out to modernize Egypt and end western domination, nationalized the Suez canal, led two wars against the Zionist state, remained a symbol of independence and pride, returned to socialism, nationalized banks and businesses, limited economic policies
Russian premier after Stalin. Led de-Stalinization of Russia. A reformer who argued for major innovations.
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
John F. Kennedy
president during part of the cold war and especially during the superpower rivalry and the cuban missile crisis. he was the president who went on tv and told the public about the crisis and allowed the leader of the soviet uinon to withdraw their missiles. other events, which were during his terms was the building of the berlin wall, the space race, and early events of the Vietnamese war.
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
the abolishment of racial segregation, which happened due to the work of Civil Rights leaders such as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.
John Foster Dulles
United States diplomat who (as Secretary of State) pursued a policy of opposition to the USSR by providing aid to American allies (1888-1959)
Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.
Brown v. Board of Education
court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause "separate but equal" has no place
A conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Vietnam.
South East Asia Treaty Organization
an international organization for collective defense primarily created to block during communism gains in Southeast Asia. Signed by—Australia, France, New Zealand, Thailand, Pakistan, Philippines, Taiwan (Republic of China), UK, US, and support from South Korea and Vietnam.
When the Hungarians tried to win their freedom from the Communist regime in 1956, they were crushed down by Soviet tanks. There was killing and slaughtering of the rebels going on by military forces.
July 26, 1956, Nasser (leader of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal, Oct. 29, British, French and Israeli forces attacked Egypt. UN forced British to withdraw; made it clear Britain was no longer a world power
Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
When the United States was in desperate need of a labor reform, because many union leaders and big industries were involved in many scandals, Congress passed this act to prevent bullying tactics and make labor leaders keep accurate financial records.
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
The United States and the Soviet Union were involved in a race to discover who had more missiles and war equipment. The missile gap was the difference in how much the United States had compared to how much the Soviet Union had.
National Defense and Education Act
(NDEA) After the Russian satellite "Sputnik" was successfully launched, there was a critical comparison of the Russian to the American education system. The American education system was already seen as too easygoing. So in 1958 Congress made the NDEA, authorizing $887 million in loans to needy college students and in grants for the purpose of improving the teaching of the sciences and languages.
The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
Robert F. Kennedy
one of two younger brothers of US President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964
Robert S. McNamara
was the secretary of defense under Kennedy. He helped develop the flexible response policy. He was against the war in Vietnam and was removed from office because of this.
Charles de Gaulle
French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)
Martin Luther King, Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
1968 Democratic candidate for President who ran to succeed incumbent Lyndon Baines Johnson on an anti-war platform.
Hubert H. Humphrey
The democratic nominee for the presidency in the election of 1968. He was LBJ's vice president, and was supportive of his Vietnam policies. This support split the Democratic party, allowing Nixon to win the election for the Republicans.
Richard M. Nixon
elected President in 1968 and 1972 representing the Republican party. He was responsible for getting the United States out of the Vietnam War by using "Vietnamization", which was the withdrawal of 540,000 troops from South Vietnam for an extended period. He was responsible for the Nixon Doctrine also. He was involved in Détente, which was a way to create peaceful relations between the United States and the communist countries of Moscow and Beijing. One of the most distinct factors relating to Nixon was that he was the first President to ever resign due to the Watergate scandal. He resigned on August 8, 1974.He was the Repubican President of the United States during the Vietnam War (1969-1974). He made many improvements for the environment, and he took the United States off the gold standard. As a result of the Watergate Scandal, Nixon was forced to resign. Many other problems hurt his term such as the energy crisis, but mainly Watergate. He removed US troops from Vietnam in 1973 with his Vietnamization policy.
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
racist gov. of Alabama in 1962 ("segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever"); runs for pres. In 1968 on American Independent Party ticket of racism and law and order, loses to Nixon; runs in 1972 but gets shot
the buildup of conventional troops and weapons to allow a nation to fight a limited war without using nuclear weapons
A lack of popular confidence in the truth of the claims or public statements made by the federal government, large corporations, politicians, etc.
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.
a civilian organization sponsored by the United States government
EX. helps people in developing countries
Alliance of Progress
this was a Marshall Plan for Latin America that was suggested by President Kennedy to help the Good Neighbors close the gap between the rich and the poor and to help quiet the communist agitation. It was unsuccessful because there was little alliance and no progress.
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
nuclear-test ban treaty
(JFK) 1963, Wake of Cuban Missile Crisis (climax of Cold War, closest weve ever come to nuclear war) Soviets & US agree to prohibit all above-ground nuclear tests, both nations choose to avoid annihilating the human race w/ nuclear war, France and China did not sign
War on Poverty
President Lyndon B. Johnson's program in the 1960's to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
Civil Right Act of 1964
this act banned segregation in all places of public accommodation, prohibited federal money from being used to support segregated programs and created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to guard against employment discrimination
It outlawed taxing voters, i.e. poll taxes, at presidential or congressional elections, as an effort to remove barriers to Black voters.
Voting Rights Act
1965 act which guaranteed the right to vote to all Americans, and allowed the federal government to intervene in order to ensure that minorities could vote
Operation Rolling Thunder
was the title of a gradual and sustained U.S. 2nd Air Division (later Seventh Air Force), U.S. Navy, and Republic of Vietnam Air Force (VNAF) aerial bombardment campaign conducted against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 2 March 1965 until 1 November 1968, during the Vietnam War.
In January 1968 during the Vietnam War the North Koreans seized the "Pueblo", a U.S. intelligence ship, evidently in international waters. They imprisoned the crew of some eighty men for eleven months. This episode stirred American anger, but provoked no military response.
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Nixon's vice-president resigned and pleaded "no contest" to charges of tax evasion on payments made to him when he was governor of Maryland. He was replaced by Gerald R. Ford.
a former American military analyst employed by the RAND Corporation who precipitated a national political controversy in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, a top-secret Pentagon study of government decision-making about the Vietnam War, to The New York Times and other newspapers.
United States diplomat who served under President Nixon and President Ford (born in 1923)
United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1891-1974)
George Stanley McGovern, Ph.D (born July 19, 1922) is a former United States Representative, Senator, and Democratic presidential nominee. McGovern lost the 1972 presidential election in a landslide to incumbent Richard Nixon. McGovern was most noted for his opposition to the Vietnam War. He is currently serving as the United Nations global ambassador on hunger.
Sam Ervin was a senator from North Carolina. He was chairman of the Senate Select Committee to Investigate Presidential Campaign Practices during the Watergate scandal.
He testified against Nixon as well as other cabinet members in the Watergate hearings. His testimony helped led to the removal of several White House officials and the resignation of Nixon. Before his testimony he had been a White House lawyer.
38th President of the United States; appointed Vice President and succeeded Nixon when Nixon resigned (1913-)
39th President; President who stressed human rights. Because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow
Shah of Iran
He was the ruler of Iran, whose family had held power since the start of the 20th century. He asked Saddam for help after religious leaders tried to overthrow Iran. The Shah continued to fight, but was eventually ousted from power. The government was then taken over by the religious leaders that the Shah opposed.
Iranian religious leader of the Shiites; when Shah Pahlavi's regime fell Khomeini established a new constitution giving himself supreme powers (1900-1989)
policy of US government to relax tensions with communist countries
The power to keep executive communications confidential, especially if they relate to national security.
During the Vietnam War, the Nixon Doctrine was created. It stated that the United States would honor its exisiting defense commitments, but in the future other countries would have to fight their own wars without support of American troops.
My Lai massacre
1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.
Kent State Killings
In April of 1970, police fired into an angry crowd of college students at Kent State University. Four students were killed and many others were wounded. The students were protesting against Nixon ordering US troops to seize Cambodia without consulting Congress.
an amendment to the US constituion, adoped in 1971 and lowering the voting age from 21 to 18
A 7,000-page top-secret United States government report on the history of the internal planning and policy-making process within the government itself concerning the Vietnam War.
negotiations between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics opened in 1969 in Helsinki designed to limit both countries' stock of nuclear weapons
The Watergate Scandal
a problem in Washington during the presidency of Richard Nixon. The members of an association working to have Nixon re-elected, CREEP, were involved in a burglary, and it was then linked to Nixon. The CREEP group had also gotten lots of money from unidentifiable places. Suspiction set in and Nixon was accused of getting illegal help in being re-elected. Nixon tried to use government to cover-up his involvement. Impeachment proceedings were started but Nixon resigned from his office in August of 1974.
Richard Nixon's committee for re-electing the president. Found to have been engaged in a "dirty tricks" campaign against the democrats in 1972. They raised tens of millions of dollars in campaign funds using unethical means. They were involved in the infamous Watergate cover-up.
War Powers Act
Limits the ability of the president to commit troops to combat-48 hours to tell Congress when and why the troops were sent, they have 60-90 to bring them home if they disagree
an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
Iranian Hostage Crisis
In 1979, Iranian fundamentalists seized the American embassy in Tehran and held fifty-three American diplomats hostage for over a year. The Iranian hostage crisis weaked the Carter presidency; the hostages were finally released on January 20, 1981, the day Ronald Reagan became president.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
APUSH Chapter 37 Key Terms and People
APUSH Chapter 36 - The Cold War Begins
APUSH Chapter 39 Key Terms and People
APUSH The American Pageant Chapter 29 Vocab
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
APUSH Unit 18
APUSH Period 8
Terms Quiz XII
American History Final
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
spanish pg. 358
40, 41, 42 APUSH Vocab
SPANISH page 314 vocab
APUSH UNIT 12 TEST STUDY GUIDE
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
The Eisenhower Era
part 37 of apush vocab (death)
Chapter 37 Notes