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What set of processes is written in order of increasing temperature?
Sedimentation, Diagenesis and Metamorphism.
What is the term for the process by which organisms burrow through muds and disrupt the sedimentary bedding?
What is the approximate temperature of sediment that is buried to a depth of 4 km?
120 degrees Celsius.
What process occurs during lithification?
Recrystallization of unstable minerals, Compaction and Cementation.
What fine-grained sedimentary rocks is clastic and displays blocky fracture and little or no bedding?
A clastic sedimentary rock composed of medium-grained (1 mm across) particles is called a ______.
In which sedimentary rocks would it be easiest to determine the type of rocks from which the sediment was derived?
What types of sandstones is most likely to form by the rapid mechanical weathering of a granite?
What type of sediments are accumulations of solid fragments produced by weathering?
The conversion of limestone to dolostone involves the replacement of calcium ions with __________.
What process is not an important cause of subsidence during the development of a sedimentary basin?
Erosion of sediments.
Physical weathering involves the breakdown of rocks at the Earth's surface through ____.
The study of sedimentary rocks helps geoscientists determine ______.
Ancient ocean environments, former plate tectonic events, and history of climate change.
The type of sedimentary basin that forms as a result of one tectonic plate overriding another, causing the plate to bend downward, is called a _______.
The tendency for variations in current velocity to segregate sediments on the basis of particle size is called ______.
What type of metamorphism is caused by high temperature and high pressure imposed over a large volume of crust?
What is the relation between metamorphic foliation and sedimentary bedding?
There is no general angular relationship between sedimentary bedding and metamorphic foliation.
What type of metamorphic rock was once used to make blackboards because of its ability to split easily into thin sheets along smooth, parallel surfaces?
What tectonic settings may be characterized by regional, high-pressure, and ultra-high-pressure metamorphism?
Convergent plate boundaries.
What sequences describes the metamorphic changes in a shale with increasing metamorphic grade?
Light-colored rocks with coarse bands of segregated light and dark minerals are called ______.
What is the most likely parent rock of a metamorphic rock containing muscovite, biotite, garnet, and quartz?
What is the pressure on a rock at 15-km depth in the Earth's crust?
Approximately 4000 times atmospheric pressure.
Under what conditions does zeolite-facies metamorphism occur?
Relatively low pressure and low temperature.
What metamorphic rock could also be considered a transitional rock between igneous and metamorphic?
Metamorphic mineral assemblages that can be used as pressure gauges are referred to as _________.
A geothermometer is ___________.
A mineral assemblage that reveals the maximum temperature attained by a rock.
A metamorphic rock that is described as porphyroblastic has _________.
Large crystals in a fine-grained matrix.
Different pressure-temperature zones within a belt of regionally metamorphosed rock are defined by the presence of _______.
What kind of metamorphism would you expect to find at a convergent plate margin?
Regional, high-pressure and contact.
The flow of metamorphic rocks back to the Earth's surface is controlled by tectonics and _________.
What is the average rate at which temperature increases with depth in the Earth's crust?
30 degrees C/km.
What processes will cause metamorphism?
An increase in pressure, interaction with hydrothermal fluids, and an increase in temperature.
During metamorphism, changes in the bulk composition of a rock occur primarily as a result of __________.
Reaction with hydrothermal fluids.
What is a general pressure in all directions, such as the pressure that the atmosphere exerts?
The hypothesis that explains the formation of the solar system is referred to as _____.
Under intense pressure and high temperature, hydrogen atoms combine to form helium. This process is called _____________.
According to the nebular hypothesis, the inner planets are dense and rocky because __________________.
The lighter gases were blown away by the Sun's radiation.
What caused dust and condensing material to accrete into planetesimals?
Gravitational attraction and collisions.
The four inner planets are ________________.
Small, rocky, and relatively lacking in volatile elements.
What is the process by which an originally homogeneous Earth developed a dense core and a light crust?
The heat that caused melting in the Earth's early history was supplied from which of the following events or causes?
A large impact event and radioactivity.
The effects of the collision of a large Mars-sized body with the Earth about 4.5 Ga is proposed to have caused __________.
A magma ocean to form at the Earth's surface, an increase in the Earth's speed of rotation and the Earth's spin axis to tilt.
Solar energy energizes all of the following major components of the Earth system except the ____________.
What powers the Earth's internal heat engine?
Radioactivity and heat trapped during the formation of the Earth.
Because of Mercury's proximity to the Sun, the daytime temperatures at its surface are approximately ____°C.
What planet is surrounded by a hot atmosphere comprised of carbon dioxide and clouds of sulfuric acid?
The time in early solar system history when there were numerous crater-forming impacts is known as the time of _______.
The light-colored regions visible on the Moon's surface correspond to the ________.
Because of the dense foggy atmosphere that surrounds Venus, its surface was explored using _______technology.
Venus's unique surface is thought to have formed through a process of vigorous mantle convection, volcanic activity, and crustal stretching referred to as _______.
Mars is also called the Red Planet because of _________.
The abundance of iron oxide minerals on the surface gives it a red appearance.
The discovery of _________ minerals on Mars indicates that there was once water present at the surface.
The only other planet in the solar system besides the Earth thought to be tectonically active is _________.
What is the correct order of events in early Earth evolution?
Accretion, impact event, and differentiation.
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