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Why is religion classified as being a universal social institution?

it meets basic human needs

What is the primary reason sociologist study religion?

to study the role that religion plays in people's lives

What was the influential book on religion published in 1912 by Emile Durkheim?

The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life

What did Durkheim call the common elements of everyday life?


How would sociologists classify communism in respect to its religious qualities?

it is a functional equivalent of religion

What is the term that refers to a sudden awareness of the supernatural or a feeling of coming in contact with God.

religious experience

When viewing communism as a functional equivalent of religion which book provides its most sacred writings?

The Commnist Manifesto

What is the transformation of traditional socieities called?


What is the world's largest religion, boasting two billion members?


What was Weber's term to describe the ideal of self-denying, highly moral life, accompanied by hard work and frugality?

the Protestant Ethic

During the first thousand years of Christianity there were only one church organization, directed from Rome


Karl Marx was a vowed atheist who characterized religion as the opiate of the people.


The original goal of the Reformation led by Martin Luther was to _______.

restructure the Roman Catholic church

The belief that all objects in the world have spirits is


What is a government that is based on the principle that God is the King

a theocracy

What do Hindus call the cycle of life, death, and rebirth ?


Sociologically, how would a cult be defined?

a new or different religion

What is the process by which spiritual concerns are replaced by worldly concerns?


What is an outstanding gift or exceptional quality someone possesses that draws others to ot both the person and their message?


A fundamental effort of cults is evangelism, the active recruitment of new members.


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