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AP Bio Chapter 45

these are crap topics to mix together on a test.
STUDY
PLAY
endocrine system
-all of the hormone secreting cells
-organs which secrete hormones
hormones
chemical signals secreted into bodily fluids (usually blood) which convey regulatory messages
target cells
certain cells equipped to respond to a particular hormone
neurosecretory cells
specialized nerve cells in endocrine tissue that secrete hormones
local regulators
affect only target cells that are near them
nitric oxide (NO)
-highly reactive, potentially toxic
-secreted by neurons, acts as neurotransmitter
-secreted by endothelium in blood vessels, relaxes smooth muscle, dilate blood vessel
-secreted by WBCs, destroys cancer cells and bacteria
-local regulator
growth factors
-peptides and proteins
-must be present in extracellular environment for many cell types to grow, divide and develop normally
prostiglandins (PGs)
-modified fatty acids (usually from plasma membrane)
-secreted by placenta to make uterine muscles more excitable
-induce fever, inflammation, pain
-2 are antagonistic: dilate vessels in lungs/constrict vessels in lungs
MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone)
-from anterior pituitary gland
-makes melanosomes (organelles containing pigment) disperse from their normal location and make the cell have a darker appearance
tropic hormones
their target cells are other endocrine glands (coordination function)
hypothalamus
contains 2 sets of neurosecretory cells whose secretions are stored in or regulate the activity of the pituitary gland
oxytocin
-produced by hypothalamus stored in posterior pituitary gland
-stimulates contraction of muscles of uterus, stimulates mammary glands
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
-produced by hypothalamus stored in posterior pituitary gland
-promotes retention of water by kidneys
GH (growth hormone)
-anterior pituitary gland
-stimulates growth and stimulates release of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) from liver
-too much in young causes gigantism
-too much in adults causes acromegaly
-too little causes pituitary dwarfism
acromegaly
abnormal bone growth in head hands and feet
PRL (prolactin)
-anterior pituitary gland
-stimulates milk production and secretion
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
-anterior pituitary gland
-a gonadotropin which stimulates production of ova and sperm
LH (luteinizing hormone)
-anterior pituitary gland
-a gonadotropin that stimulates ovaries and testes
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
-anterior pituitary gland
-stimulate thyroid gland
ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)
-anterior pituitary gland
-stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids
endorphins
-anterior pituitary gland
-inhibit perception of pain
melatonin
-pineal gland
-involved in biorhythms (secreted at night)
-light can mess this up
T3 and T4 thyroxine (triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine)
-thyroid
-metabolism regulators
-cretinism
cretinism
deficiency of T3 and T4 can cause retardation of mental and physical development
calcitonin
-thyroid
-lowers blood calcium level
PTH (parathyroid hormone)
-parathyroid
-raises blood calcium level
islets of langerhans
endocrine cells
alpha and beta
alpha cells
secrete glucagon
beta cells
secrete insulin
insulin
-pancreas
-lowers blood glucose (sugar goes into cells)
glucagon
-pancreas
-raises blood glucose (takes sugar from cells)
type I diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent diabetes)
autoimmune disorder in which immune system attacks cells of pancreas
type II diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent-diabetes)
usually caused by reduced responsiveness of target cells to insulin (can often be controlled by only diet and exercise)
glucocorticoids
-adrenal cortex
-raise blood glucose
-long term stress response
-suppressed immune system
mineralocorticoids
-adrenal cortex
-long term stress response
-promote reabsorption of Na+ and excretion of K+
-retain water, increase blood pressure
epinephrine (adrenalin)
-adrenal medulla
-short term stress response
-raise blood glucose, increase metabolism, constrict certain blood vessels (creating greater alertness and decreasing digestive and kidneys) (fight or flight response) (increased breathing, increased blood pressure)
norepinephrine (noradrenalin)
-adrenal medulla
-short term stress response
-opposite of adrenalin
androgens
-ex. testosterone
-support sperm formation, male secondary sex characteristics
estrogens
stimulate uterine lining growth, female secondary sex characteristics