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these are crap topics to mix together on a test.

endocrine system

-all of the hormone secreting cells
-organs which secrete hormones


chemical signals secreted into bodily fluids (usually blood) which convey regulatory messages

target cells

certain cells equipped to respond to a particular hormone

neurosecretory cells

specialized nerve cells in endocrine tissue that secrete hormones

local regulators

affect only target cells that are near them

nitric oxide (NO)

-highly reactive, potentially toxic
-secreted by neurons, acts as neurotransmitter
-secreted by endothelium in blood vessels, relaxes smooth muscle, dilate blood vessel
-secreted by WBCs, destroys cancer cells and bacteria
-local regulator

growth factors

-peptides and proteins
-must be present in extracellular environment for many cell types to grow, divide and develop normally

prostiglandins (PGs)

-modified fatty acids (usually from plasma membrane)
-secreted by placenta to make uterine muscles more excitable
-induce fever, inflammation, pain
-2 are antagonistic: dilate vessels in lungs/constrict vessels in lungs

MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone)

-from anterior pituitary gland
-makes melanosomes (organelles containing pigment) disperse from their normal location and make the cell have a darker appearance

tropic hormones

their target cells are other endocrine glands (coordination function)


contains 2 sets of neurosecretory cells whose secretions are stored in or regulate the activity of the pituitary gland


-produced by hypothalamus stored in posterior pituitary gland
-stimulates contraction of muscles of uterus, stimulates mammary glands

ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

-produced by hypothalamus stored in posterior pituitary gland
-promotes retention of water by kidneys

GH (growth hormone)

-anterior pituitary gland
-stimulates growth and stimulates release of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) from liver
-too much in young causes gigantism
-too much in adults causes acromegaly
-too little causes pituitary dwarfism


abnormal bone growth in head hands and feet

PRL (prolactin)

-anterior pituitary gland
-stimulates milk production and secretion

FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)

-anterior pituitary gland
-a gonadotropin which stimulates production of ova and sperm

LH (luteinizing hormone)

-anterior pituitary gland
-a gonadotropin that stimulates ovaries and testes

TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)

-anterior pituitary gland
-stimulate thyroid gland

ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)

-anterior pituitary gland
-stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids


-anterior pituitary gland
-inhibit perception of pain


-pineal gland
-involved in biorhythms (secreted at night)
-light can mess this up

T3 and T4 thyroxine (triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine)

-metabolism regulators


deficiency of T3 and T4 can cause retardation of mental and physical development


-lowers blood calcium level

PTH (parathyroid hormone)

-raises blood calcium level

islets of langerhans

endocrine cells
alpha and beta

alpha cells

secrete glucagon

beta cells

secrete insulin


-lowers blood glucose (sugar goes into cells)


-raises blood glucose (takes sugar from cells)

type I diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent diabetes)

autoimmune disorder in which immune system attacks cells of pancreas

type II diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent-diabetes)

usually caused by reduced responsiveness of target cells to insulin (can often be controlled by only diet and exercise)


-adrenal cortex
-raise blood glucose
-long term stress response
-suppressed immune system


-adrenal cortex
-long term stress response
-promote reabsorption of Na+ and excretion of K+
-retain water, increase blood pressure

epinephrine (adrenalin)

-adrenal medulla
-short term stress response
-raise blood glucose, increase metabolism, constrict certain blood vessels (creating greater alertness and decreasing digestive and kidneys) (fight or flight response) (increased breathing, increased blood pressure)

norepinephrine (noradrenalin)

-adrenal medulla
-short term stress response
-opposite of adrenalin


-ex. testosterone
-support sperm formation, male secondary sex characteristics


stimulate uterine lining growth, female secondary sex characteristics

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