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what is the location of the breast?
anterior to the pectoralis major and the 6th rib, bounded medially by the sternum and bordered laterally by the axilla
how does the breast appear sonographically?
divided into 3 layers between the skin and chest wall--subcutaneous, mammary, and retromammary layers
what are the lobes of the breast?
normal breast is composed of 15 to 20 lobes separated by adipose tissue--each lobe has an external drainage pathway into the nipple
what are coopers ligaments?
suspensory ligaments that support the breast tissue, which run between each lobe from the deep muscle fascia to the skin surface
what is the vascular supply to the breast?
lateral thoracic arteries supply the main supply to breast (axillary artery)--subclavian, and thoracic aorta
what are the breast lymphatics
lymphatic drainage from all parts of the breast generally flow to the axillary lymph nodes
what controls the production of milk?
hormones produced within the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland
what triggers the production of prolactin?
after the placenta has been expelled and the estrogen levels have declined, prolactin levels increase
what triggers the production of oxytocin?
stimulation from infants suckling triggers production of oxytocin and causes contraction of the lactiferous ducts and lactation begins
what is the milk pathway in the breast?
acini--terminal duct--terminal duct lobar unit--lobules--lobes, lactiferous duct, ampulla, nipple
what hormone triggers the breast to develop into its mature lobulated form?
progesterone influences formation of lobules
how do the breasts change during the monthly cycle?
they enlarge slightly during menstrual cycle due to water retention
what are the changes that happen to the breast during menopause?
glandular tissue atrophies and breast becomes mainly composed of fatty tissue and ducts become ectatic
what are the three steps for routine breast cancer screening?
monthly self exam, regular clinical breast exams, screening mammography
what are some of the methods for describing breast lesion location?
4 quadrants UI, UO, LI, LO----clock face radial: 3, 6, 9 oclock etc-----123 method of 1 near the nipple, 2 mid circle around, 3 outer circle around nipple----ABC method with A closest to nipple, B mid, C closest to chest wall
what position is CC in mammo
superior to inferior compression of the breast--equal to trv scan plane
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