A&P Marieb Chapter 6: Skeletal
Terms in this set (81)
Collagen fibers in matrix, no blood vessels or nerves. Very resilient
Dense connective tissue girdle, resists outward expansion of cartilage and vascular for nutrient delivery
Most common cartilage type. Articular joints, costal ribs, respiratory, nasal
Cartilage only found in external ear and epiglottis
Has tensile strength. Found in meniscus, pubic symphysis, and btwn vertebrae
Cells secrete matrix against external surface. Bone thickness
Chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding from within. Bone length.
NOT bone! Occurs during normal bone growth esp. youth and old age
Number of named bones in human body
4 shapes of bones
Long, short, flat, irregular
Longer than wide. Found in limbs, wrists, ankles
Cube shaped. Found in wrists, ankles.
Largely variable short bones within tendons, ex. patella
Thin, flat, curved. Ex. Sternum, scapulae, ribs, skull
Catch all for odd bones. Vertebra, coxal bones
7 functions of bones
Protection, support, movement, mineral storage, hematopoiesis, fat storage, hormone production
2 bone textures
Compact and spongy
Dense outer layer of all bones
Also cancellous or trabicular. Honeycomb of flat pieces deep in structure
White double layered membrane on superficial bone surface. Dense irregular tissue, vascular
Connect periosteum to bone
Delicate connective tissue covering trabeculae and lining canals
Tubular shaft of long bones containing yellow marrow in adults (red in infants)
Flat bones cavities synonymous with trabecular cavities of spongy bones
Where is hematopoietic tissue found?
Spongy bones' trabeculaer cavities, flat bones' diploë, medullary cavities of infants
Line in epiphyses head of bone where growth plate used to be
Tubular shaft of long bone, hollow, forming medullary cavity
Long bone ends, containing spongy bone. Separated from diaphysis by epiphyseal line/plate
5 types of bone cell
Osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, bone lining cells, osteoclasts.
Mitotically active, can become -blasts or lining cells
Create bone, secreting unmineralized matrix- osteoid. Actively mitotic
Trapped in matrix, monitors and maintains. Stress communicates to other cells for build/rebuild for strength. Connected by canaliculi
External Bone lining cells
Internal bone lining cells
Derived from hemo- stem cells, becoming macrophages. Giant multinucleate cell for bone reabsorption
Structural unit, long cylinder of lamellar bone
Shoots down center of osteon for blood vessels and nerves
Also Volkmann's, run side to side connecting osteons and outside
Tiny fibers connecting osteocytes that allow communication and nutrient movement
Concentric circles within osteon
Incomplete circles, not associated with an osteon
Deep to periosteum, circling edges to resist twisting
Align along lines of stress but appear random. No osteons.
Organic bone matrix secreted by osteoblasts made of ground substance, collagen fibers.
Mineral salts 65% bone by mass, CaPO4. Gives bone hardness.
Growth arrest lines
Horizontal lines proving illness where bone ceased to grow
1/2 as strong as steel in compression. As strong in tension.
Bone tissue formation, begins 2nd month of development.
Bone replaces hyaline cartilage, most bones in skeleton
Clavical and cranial bone growth
Also quiescent, normal hyaline cartilage
Rapidly growing cart. cells pushing epiphysis away from diaphysis.
Older chondrocytes, lacunae enlarge and erode
Cartilage matrix calcified, some bone invading
Spicules eroded by osteoclasts, cover by new bone
Epiphyseal plate closure
Make- 21, female- 18 when lengthening of bone ceases
Stimulates epiphyseal plate activity. Released by anterior pituitary gland
Sex hormones that stimulate teenage growth spurts
Calcium 5 needs
Nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, blood coagulation, gland secretion, cell division
Grams of Ca in body, 99% in bone minerals
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Removed calcium from bone when needed in blood
Encourages bone uptake of Ca?
Calcium levels too low
Calcium Levels too high in body
Released by adipose tissue, affects density regulation
Neurotransmitter affecting bone density
Position f bone ends after fracture
Completeness of a break
Whether skin is penetrated in fracture
Fragments into 3+ pieces
Bone is crushed, common in porous bones in trauma/fall
Ragged break, common in sporte
Separated from diaphysis, might close plate in young
Pressed inward, typical skull
Incomplete break on one side of bone, common in kids
Realignment of broken bone ends. Closed- manual, open- surgical
Bones poorly mineralized, soft and weak.
Osteomalacia in children. Bowed legs, enlarged and long bone ends. Vitamin D deficient
Bone thinning. Likely to fracture. More common in Caucasian women.
Excessive/haphazard bone growth with high rate of spongy bone.