progressive Catholics and revitalized Catholic political parties
-rejected authoritarianism, narrow nationalism, and believed in democracy and cooperation
-in Italy: they were the leading party in 1946 and won in 1948. Alcide De Gasperi was their leader
-in West Germany: Konrad Adenauer was their democratic ruler. This party was the majority party for a long time.
Anti-Nazi, in 1949 began long and successful democratic rule of West Germany under the Christian democratic party
making things/business/industries state-controlled and state-run, like the British industries were postwar, under the newly elected socialist Labour Party
a plan that got European countries back on their feet (economically) - a gift from the USA. It was economic aid. Began in 1948
French economic pragmatist, had ambitious and flexible goals for the French economy
-used nationalized banks as a way to get money into their industries
-created a "mixed" state and private economy which led to the fastest economic development in France
-this guy + Robert Schuman in 1950 had the idea for the ECSC (which formed in 1952)
after western European nations got rid of protectionism, they created a unified market.
-stimulated the economy
-part of the search for European unity
-also known as the European Economic Community
-created as a result of the Treaty of Rome
-reduction of tariffs to create a single market (that would rival the US's)
Organization of European Economic Cooperation
a result of the cooperation between European states. Europeans thought that this would lead to a greater European unity or some sort of European parliament, but that never happened. Because Britain was BFFs with the USA, and consistently opposed the idea
Charles de Gaulle
inspiring wartime leader of the Free French
-one of the best postwar leaders after Jan 1946
-resigned after he helped re-establish the Fourth Republic of France (which was free and democratic!)
Josip Broz Tito
a resistance leader and Communist chief of Yugoslavia
-resisted Soviet domination successfully (basically he stood up to Stalin) - 1948
-he got away with it because there was no Russian troops in Yugoslavia
-but he was purged because Stalin was super angry after he heard about him
a reformer, who emerged as a new ruler of the Soviet Union in 1955.
-initiated de-stalinization (basically, liberalization)
-attacked Stalin by revealing all the horrible things Stalin had done
-De-Stalinization meant: new party members, more consumer goods and agriculture, relaxed controls over workers, higher standard of living
of Soviet foreign policy "peaceful coexistence with capitalism is possible" "great wars are NOT inevitable"
1955 - Khrushchev frees Austria
-stimulated rebellions in European satellites in the east
ex: in Hungary. After the Soviet officials promised free elections and such in Hungary, the Russian leaders stomped on their hopes and crushed the revolution, which was sad
-they realized they'd have to be obedient to SU
was voted into Czechoslovakia's government because the Czechoslovak Communist Party won
-believed that a relaxed reform program was possible
-wanted to make "socialism with a human face"
1968 - Russian and allied eastern European troops occupied Czechoslovakia. CS doesn't fight back. Surrendered to Soviet demands. "Humanizing Communism" comes to an end.
A doctrine declared shortly after the Soviet win of "Prague Spring" - states that the Soviet Union and its allies have the right to intervene in any socialist country when necessary
collective dictatorship, no more terror! 1970s Soviet Union
-rising standard of living
-enduring nationalism of Great Russians (patriotism)
-of culture and art - no more critical free expression. people were punished, but not killed (see? it's like a nicer version of Stalin). here's where they were blacklisted.
Pope John Paul II
also known as Karol Wojtyla
1978 became pope
-preached love of Christ and country
-preached the "inalienable rights of man"
-electrified the Polish nation
-inspired 16,000 workers in 1980 to lay down their tools and join "in solidarity" which led to the Gdansk Agreement
-Solidarity: free and democratic trade union
-refused to use force to challenge the Communists
-this guy was criticized for being too moderate in his leadership, and solidarity lost some of its cohesiveness
1985 - this guy launched reform
-most vigorous Soviet leader in a generation
-thought Communism was failing because it couldn't keep up with Western capitalism
-this was making the Soviet Union lose its superpower-ness
1. perestroika: restructuring of economy
-more independence for state enterprises, etc
2. glasnost: openness
-of the government
-approached free speech and free expression
The Velvet Revolution
the ousting of Communist bosses in November-December 1989
-result of popular demonstrations led by students, intellectuals, and Vaclav Havel
-resulted IN the resignation of the Communist government
the dissident playwright that led the Velvet Revolution and was elected president of Czechoslovakia in 1989
Gorbachev's great rival
-This guy's power was strengthened by Gorbachev's eroding power and stubbornness
-radical reform communist
-was purged in 1987
-elected leader of Russian Federation's Parliament in 1990
-declare independence from the Soviet Union
-declared the "rebirth of Russia"
-supported by the army
results of directed research during World War II
-a new model for science
-combined theoretical work with engineering in a large organization
-could tackle extremely difficult problems
-better products for consumers, improved weapons for military
a society that was elevated with a higher standard of living because of...
-spread of standardized consumer goods
-leisure and recreation
University of Paris vs. De Gaulle
-conflict between the French university students and the French government
-seemed like the Fifth Republic would collapse
-nope, the government stiffened. and they won even more support because the public was afraid of the student revolution.
an idea that was dominant in Europe
-high levels of social benefits
emergence of a freer global economy
-sped up world economic growth
-also had negative consequences
critics say that this idea was:
-undermining the "hard-worn social achievements of Europe"
-reduced the power of labor unions
-reduced social benefits from the government
first elected president of Russia in 2000, re-elected in 2004.
-maintained free markets
-re-established semi-authoritarian political rule
-Russian economy grew rapidly
-Russian middle class expanded
-Elected parliament supported this guy
-His image soothed the Russians' injured pride and symbolized national resurgence (sort of like that rebirth in the 1945-68 time period?)
Lots of European countries wanted to join the European Community, which was renamed this in 1993.
-they wanted NATO membership, economic prosperity
-but it was hard to get admitted
-the new group consisted of: Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Slovakia, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Malta, Cyprus (+Britain, France, Germany, Italy, etc) BUT NOT TURKEY!
several thousand civilians were murdered here
-when Bosnian Serbs invaded this place
-originally a Muslim city deemed a "safe area" by the United Nations - that was wrong
-caused world outrage!
-NATO bombed Bosnian Serb military targets and drove all the Serbs out of Croatia
-Bill Clinton made the agreement that Bosnian Serbs get 49% of Bosnia and Muslim-Croatians get the rest. Peace :)
-set strict financial criteria for joining the proposed monetary union, with its single currency (European Union)
-anticipated the development of common policies on defense and foreign affairs after achieving monetary union
when this entered the pockets of the European citizens as a unified currency, it built confidence and brought an acceleration of negotiations. As a result, the EU added a ton of countries to their special group. Oh, and Britain didn't want to use these.
British-educated lawyer, led India to its decolonization from Britain
-preached nonviolence, non cooperation
-1935 - this guy got a new constitution that was a "blueprint for independence" from the Brits
Palestine was split into two states in a nonbinding resolution from the United Nations
-one Arab and one Jewish
-this is the Jewish side
-the Jews accepted this plan, and the Arabs didn't
-so in 1948, the Arabs attacked this place
-But the Jews kicked butt and won more territory
-but the next 50 years saw a ton more conflict between the Arabs and the Jews
Because the British, French, and Israeli were defeated in the Egyptian revolution, the Arabs were inspired in Algeria
-Algerian war between the Arab nationalists and French
-long, bloody, dirty
-General de Gaulle accepted Algerian self-determination as a surrender
1962 - Algeria became independent
(the French left over in Algeria fled back to France!)
-birthrates fell to levels that seemed to promise a shrinking and aging population in the future - not good
-but, the European Union was attracting more and more refugees and illegal immigrants
-so many newcomers!
-raised the question: what is European identity? And what is Europe's place in the world?