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ART 112 Midterm 1 Study Guide
Terms in this set (81)
old stone age; peoples were nomadic hunter-gathers; two main types of arts: small portable structures and cave&rock shelters with painted and carved imagery
new stone age; beginnings of agricultural and animal husbandry; stationary human settlements
sculpture in the round
a freestanding figure carved on ALL sides
incised/ carved into rock or other surfaces (not all the way around)
partly frontal, partly profile view of animal
animals posed off the ground with legs fully extended backwards and forwards to signify that they are running
earthen clay combined with other materials, fired at high heat
flat stones stacked in layers without mortar
post and lintel
an architectural system with two or more vertical elements supporting a horizontal element
vertical load bearing elements that support the lintel
horizontal shelf or roof supported by posts
tombs and monuments built from huge stones; big stone
a funerary site with corridors leading to a central chamber
circular formation of posts, sometimes topped with lintels, often surrounded by a ditch
land/city between rivers; not well protected, lots of attacks and conquers and takeovers because it is a flat land; between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; Sumerian people, develop early independent city states in the south: Uruk and Ur
picture-based written language; ex. a picture of a bowl means bowl
phonogram system: written marks indicate SPOKEN SOUNDS. ex. like our language "A" doesn't directly relate to something, it is how it sounds, only has meaning when strung together with others
a special writing tool for cuneiform writing with one pointed end and one triangular wedge end.
sacred mountain; religious buildings with stepped pyramid form
a small cylindrical stone decorated with incised patterns. when rolled across soft clay or wax, the resulting raised pattern or design served as an identifying signature
vertical slab of stone with writing or images
the larger someone is the more important they are in society
alternating high and low sections of a wall, giving a notched appearance and creating permanent defensive shields in the walls of fortified buildings
Responsible for the reunification of Mesopotamia. Wrote the laws relating to property issues and a few personal laws.
picture writing: words and ideas rendered in the form of pictoral symbols; written marks even when the are pictures indicated spoken sounds
powerful ruling families; each ____is per family
flat stone used to grind kohl (used for eyeliner)
single-level flat funerary structure
interior space with rows of columns
flat surface of stone remains as is and the figures are carved away appearing sunken in, around the body
sarcophagus (pl. sarcophagi)
a rectangular stone coffin. Often decorated with relief sculpture
A king in ancient egypt who unified the 2 kingdoms (upper Egypt [South] and lower Egypt [North])
creates a monotheistic religion in the 18th dynasty, centered around the sun g-d Aten. Renames himself and the reign is called the Amarna Period. different art type came out of this period
the final, topmost stone in a corbel arch or vault, which joins the sides and completes the structure
an arch built into a heavy wall just above a post and lintel structure (such as a gate, door, or window) to help support the above wall. Relieves some of the weight on the lintel by transferring the load to the side walls
cella or naos
a central room often surrounded by a row of columns with a porch in front
a porch in front of a cella/naos
row or double row of columns on the exterior wall
the sculpted block that tops a column. according to the convention of the orders, ____include different decorative element
a spiral scroll, as seen on an ionic capital
triangular gable under the roof ; a triangular gable found over major architectural elements such as classical Greek porticoes, windows, or doors
youthful female figure, usually clothed
youthful males, usually nude
black paint (slip) is used to create figures and forms on pottery
black slip fills in the background, figures created out of unpainted areas of the red pottery
black paint used on pottery
a pose where there is a mild s curve to the body; a hip shot pose; shifting of weight leading to hip movement/ diagonal line to the hips; better representation of how the body works in the artwork
the citadel of an ancient Greek city, located at its highest point and consisting of temples, a treasury, and sometimes a royal palace. the most famous is Athens, where the ruins of the Parthenon can be found
columns that are carved figures (carved in the round)
a set of idealized human proportions and beauty. Emphasizes perfect symmetry and contrapposto pose
means "Greek - Like"
the key Athenian Golden Age Leader.
Alexander the Great
under Hellenistic Greece, takes over for his father Phillip, initiates a new era in Greek culture; expansion of Greek territories- more contact between Greece and Middle Eastern and Indian cultures.
known especially for his military achievements. Confronts Darius III at the battle of Issos
4 Greek Eras/Styles
Geometric, Archaic, Classical (Golden Age), and Hellenistic
Doric (flat slab), Ionic (volute), Corinthian (acanthus leaf)
a column that is attached to a wall
structure that transports water
a curved structural element that spans an open space. constructed by fitting trapezoid shaped stones together, these stones are known as voussoirs
rows of equally spaced round arches. book: a series of arches, carried by columns or piers and supporting a common wall or lintel.
trapezoid shaped stones that make up an arch
extended arch through space creating a half-cylinder
two barrel vaults intersecting at 90 degrees
images created by the laying down of small pebbles or pieces of glass (tesserae)
tessera (pl: tesserae)
small pebbles and pieces of glass used to create mosaic images
a manner of representation in which the appearance of natural space and objects is recreated with the express intention of fooling the eye of the viewer, who may be convinced that the subject actually exists as three-dimensional reality
Romans developed. strong and cheap, enables faster construction, used within the Colosseum
decorative arch monuments that celebrate imperial achievements
an order of columns that combines Ionic Volutes and Corinthian acanthus leaves in the capital
any building constructed in a circular shape, usually producing a large open space crowned by a dome
the wall that supports a dome. Also: a segment of the circular shaft of a column
a round vault, usually over a circular space.
rectangular cut-outs that reduce weight
Edict of Milan (313 CE)
a result of Constantine's victory this edict was created and grants freedom to all religions to publicly practice their religion
Augustus (a.k.a. Octavian/Octavius)
First Roman Emperor; Caesar's Nephew; he was loved, kept senate intact but took power from them.
one of the flavian emperors; the flavian emperors build colosseum in rome; captured Jerusalem and looted the temple
built religious structure: the Panthenon.
a son of a tetrarch. conquers Maxentious in 312 CE and takes over western roman empire. grants freedom to all religions to practice: The Edict of Milan, 313 CE. Begins to legitimize Christianity and its spread, people can worship in public
the column/post sits directly on the platform. The topmost piece/capital of the column is unornamented/not decorated
has a base at the bottom of the column. The sapital is decorative, has a curly/spiral form (volute) at the top of the capital.
the capital is even MORE decorated. Uses leafy/foliage imagery.
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