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biology midterm #1 chapters FIVE AND SIX
Terms in this set (46)
definition of energy
the capacity to do work
The molecule most directly involved in energy transfer within cells is _____.
an enzyme is considered a _______ because it speeds up a chemical reaction without it being used u[
in a catalyzed reaction, a reactant is often called a
an enzyme is specific because the shape of its ______ matches only particular reactants
an enzyme speeds up reactions by lowering the
the _______ between an active site and its substrate often strains bonds and helps the reaction proceed
a _______, which is often a vitamin, binds to an enzyme and plays a role in catalysis
high temperatures or changes in pH can ________ an enzyme, causing it to lose its shape and biological activity
there are three main types of cellular work: chemical,transport, and movement. most of this work is powered by the transfer of a phosphate group from one molecule to another in a process known as ___________
through energy coupling, cells use _________, or energy releasing, reactions to drive _________, or energy requiring, reactions. the molecule ________is the energy shuttle between these two types of reactions.
exergonic, endergonic, ATP
mechanisms such as ______________, enable precise control over a cell's ______________- all of its chemical reactions
feedback inhibition; metabolism
a net movement of molecules down their concentration gradient
a hypertonic solution has a _______ solute concentration than the cell
the ideal osmotic environment for an animal cell is
an animal cell place in a __________ solution with gain water, swell, and possibly burst
there is a net diffusion of water out of an animal cell when it is placed in a _________ solution
the ideal osmotic environment for a plant cell is an __________ environment
a plant cell placed in a __________ solution will lose water and plasmolyze
a plant cell surrounded by an ___________ solution will be flaccid (limp_
requires an input of energy and moves molecules against their concentration gradient.
a vesicle inside the cells fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents outside of the cell
a form of passive transport. molecules move across the plasma membrane using a transport protein
the plasma membrane forms a pocket that pinches inward, forming a vesicle that contains material from outside the cell
a form of passive transport. molecules move across the plasma membrane by crossing the lipid bilayer
diffusion is the.....
Diffusion is the tendency of molecules to spread out in the available space. A substance will diffuse from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration.
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane is called _____. (special case of passive transport)
What is the correct general equation for cellular respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy
where does glycolysis take place?
the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell
n what organelle would you find acetyl CoA formation, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain?
Which statement describes glycolysis?
This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.
Which statement describes the citric acid cycle?
The citric acid cycle breaks down carbon molecules, releasing carbon dioxide and forming some ATP.
the ETC uses _______ captured from ________ flowing to ________ to produce ___________ in cellular respiration
energy, electrons, oxygen, most of the atps
Cellular respiration requires fuel (glucose) and oxygen gas. The main process that produces these inputs is _____.
Which part(s) of cellular respiration require(s) oxygen gas?
the citric acid cycle and the ETC
What is/are the most important output(s) of GLYCOLYSIS
two pyruvic acid and two NADH molecules
glycolysis occurs in the
The function of cellular respiration is to __________.
extract usable energy from glucose
_____ is a chemical process that uses light energy from the sun to build organic molecules.
_____ is used as food and _____ is produced as a waste in the overall process of cellular respiration.
glucose, carbon dioxide
what are the end products of cellular respiration.
Water, carbon dioxide, and energy
The electron transport chain molecules are embedded in
the inner mitochondrial membrane.
What is the role of oxygen in cellular respiration?
Oxygen accepts high-energy electrons after they are stripped from glucose
By the end of _____, the breakdown of glucose is complete; most ATP molecules are produced during _____.
the Citric Acid cycle ... electron transport
NADH and FADH 2 are important in cellular respiration because they deliver high-energy electrons to the electron transport system. Electron transport produces _____ ATP molecule(s) per NADH molecule and _____ ATP molecules(s) per FADH 2 molecule.
three ... two
In humans, muscle cells switch to __________________ after becoming ________
lactic acid fermentation, anaerobic
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Tour of the Cell Chapter 4
biology test chapters 2, 3, 4
Water Balance in Cells
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