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Chem 102H COMPREHENSIVE
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Gravity
includes general things to know for the rest of your life
Terms in this set (34)
tera (T) 10^12
giga (G) 10^9
mega (M) 10^6
kilo (k) 10^3
hecto (h) 10^2
10^0
deci (d) 10^-1
centi (c) 10^-2
milli (m) 10^-3
micro (μ) 10^-6
nano (n) 10^-9
pico (p) 10^-12
prefix units of measure
37 ∘C
98.6 ∘F
310.15 K
Normal Human Body Temperature
Fahrenheit to Celsius (in picture)
C = (5/9)(F-32)
Celsius to Kelvin
K = C + 273.15
temperature conversions
c = 2.998 × 10^8 m/s
speed of light (c)
s = d/t
(speed = distance/time)
keep units consistent
d = m/v
density = mass/volume
keep units consistent
speed formula/equation
density formula/equation
M1V1 = M2V2
(concentration/molarity 1)(volume 1) = (concentration/molarity 2)(volume 2)
(mol/L)1 × L1 = (mol/L)2 × L2
diluting solutions (initial and final) formula/equation
6.022 × 10^23 molecules/mole
Avogadro's number
1 calorie = 4.184 J
calorie (c) to J conversion
1 J = 1 kg.m^2/s^2
joule (J) to SI units conversion
R= 8.31446 J/mol.K
R= 0.08206 L.atm/mol.K
Gas constant (R)
1 amu = 1.66054 × 10^-24 g
amu to g conversion
PV = nRT
(P + an^2/V^2)(V-nb) = nRT
P = pressure (atm)
V = volume (L)
n = # of moles (moles)
R = 8.31446 J/mol.K
T = temperature (K)
a and b would be given
Ideal Gas Law and van der Waals equations
Random Conversions:
1 L.atm = 101.325 J
1 L . atm = 0.1013 kJ
1 m^3 Pa = 1 J
1.01325 x 10^5 Pa = 1 atm
1 L = 1 kg
L = 1000 cm^3
1000 L = 1 m^3
...
state functions: path-independent
S (entropy)
E (internal energy)
H (enthalpy)
G (gibbs free energy)
not state functions:
q (heat)
w (work)
4.07 × 10^4 J/mol
heat of vaporization of water (ΔHvap)
electron:
mass: negligible but 0.0005 amu or 9.10938356 × 10^-31 kg
proton:
mass: 1.007 amu or 1.67262 × 10^−27 kg
neutron:
mass: 1.009 amu or 1.675484 × 10^−27 kg
masses of subatomic particles
KE = 1/2mv^2
kinetic energy = 1/2 × mass × (velocity)^2
J = 1/2 × kg × (m/s)^2
kinetic energy formula
PE = mgh
potential energy = mass × gravity constant × height
J = kg × (9.8 × 10^8 m/s^2) × m
potential energy formula
accepted mass value of atom = m.o. protons - m.o. neutrons - m.o. electrons
mass defect formula/equation
1 eV = 1.60 × 10^-19 J
± 1.6022 × 10^-19 C
eV to J conversion
charge (Coulomb) of electron/proton
h= 6.626 × 10^-34 J.s
Planck's constant (h)
pseudoformula
- the one with decimals (C3.41H4.53O3.41)
empirical formula
- the one with the lowest (simplified) integer values (C3H4O3)
molecular formula
- the correct one in nature based on molar mass (C6H8O6)
different types of formulas for compounds
μ = q × r
dipole moment = charge × distance between
D = C . m
dipole moment formula/equation
1 D = 3.34 × 10^-30 C.m
D to C.m conversion
1 Å = 10^-10 m
atomic radius conversion
1 x 10^-10 m
a typical bond length
E = hv = hc/λ = mc^2
energy = Planck's constant × frequency
J = J.s × s^-1
energy = (Planck's constant × speed of light)/wavelength
J = (J.s.m/s)/m
energy = mass × (speed of light)^2
E = kg × (m/s)^2
energy (E) formulas/equations
use for frequency, wavelength
use for nuclear fission, fusion
λ = h/mv
wavelength = (Planck's constant)/(mass × VELOCITY:speed of light)
m = (J·s)/(kg×m/s)
equation for calculating wavelength of an electron
ΔE = ΔmC^2
Δm= (products and reactants mass defects difference)
how much E (J) is released when uranium-235 decays
KE = hv- h(v0)
kinetic energy = incoming light energy - threshold frequency (the E needed for an electron to be emitted)
if KE>0 then the electron emitted has that E (difference)
sometimes it has no excess energy
photoelectric effect, E for emitted electron
E = hcRH×(1/nf^2−1/ni^2) -> ΔE=−(2.18×10^−18 J)×(1/nf^2−1/ni^2)
n = energy orbitals (f- final and i- initial)
h= 6.626×10^−34 J⋅s
c= 2.998×10^8 m/s
RH= 1.097×10^7 m−1
Rydberg equation
F.C: valence electrons - (# of bonds + # of non-bonding electrons)
formal charge calculation/equation
Bond Order = (# of total bonds)/(# of places/domains with bonds)
Bond Order = (1/2)(# of bonding electrons- # of antibonding electrons)
bond order (valence bond theory)
bond order (molecular orbit theory)
(Δx)(Δmv) ≥ (h/4π)
We cannot simultaneously define the position and momentum of a quantum mechanical particle.
Heisenburg's "The Uncertainty Principle"
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