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world population

6.95 billion; 2/3 are in 4 concentration areas: east asia, south asia, europe, southeast asia


depicts the size of countries according to population rather than land area

east asia concentration

1/4 of world pop. which includes eastern china (5/6 of concentration), japan, korea, and taiwan

south asia concentration

1/4 of world pop. which includes india (2nd largest in the world), pakistan, bangladesh, and sri lanka

european concentration

1/9 of world pop. which includes 4 dozen countries within europe

southeast asia concentration

9% of world pop. (emerging concentration) mainly the islands between the indian and pacific oceans including java (indonesia), sumatra, borneo, papua, and the philippines


the portion of earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement (excludes all population voids such as cold climates, dry lands, wet lands, high lands)

arithmetic density

total number of people divided by the total land area

physiological density

the number of people supported by a unit area of arable land (land suited for agriculture); the higher the density, the great the pressure that people may place on the land to produce enough food

agricultural density

the ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land

Thomas Malthus

1798 "an essay on the principle of population" book, pessimist view on overpopulation; said humans reproduce geometrically (2,4,8,16) and food produces arithmetically (1,2,3,4), eventually will run out of food

natural increase rate

percentage by which a population grows in a year, births-deaths;
the world is growing at 1.2% (or 80 million) a year; US=.6%; 99% of pop growth is in LDCs

crude birth rate

number of live births per 1000 people
Afghanistan is very high; US=14 per 1000 people

crude death rate

number of deaths per 1000 people
US=8 per 1000 people

total fertility rate

number of children per women during reproductive lifetime;
US=2 children/woman; world average=2.5;
statistical replacement=2.1

stage 1

agrarian preindustrial society (hunting and gathering); a lot of babies, high death rate, low pop growth

stage 2

beginning of industrialization (1800s); high birth rates, decreasing death rates (bc of sanitation, ag industrialization, food improved), population explosion

stage 3

late industrialization; birth rates drop, death rates drop, pop growth peeks and begins to decrease

stage 4

post industrialization (today); low birth rates, low death rates, 0 growth rate

population pyramid

shows age and sex distribution of a population

dependency ratio

the number of people who are too young or too old to work compared to the number of people in their productive years

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