21 terms

Geog ch 2

world population
6.95 billion; 2/3 are in 4 concentration areas: east asia, south asia, europe, southeast asia
depicts the size of countries according to population rather than land area
east asia concentration
1/4 of world pop. which includes eastern china (5/6 of concentration), japan, korea, and taiwan
south asia concentration
1/4 of world pop. which includes india (2nd largest in the world), pakistan, bangladesh, and sri lanka
european concentration
1/9 of world pop. which includes 4 dozen countries within europe
southeast asia concentration
9% of world pop. (emerging concentration) mainly the islands between the indian and pacific oceans including java (indonesia), sumatra, borneo, papua, and the philippines
the portion of earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement (excludes all population voids such as cold climates, dry lands, wet lands, high lands)
arithmetic density
total number of people divided by the total land area
physiological density
the number of people supported by a unit area of arable land (land suited for agriculture); the higher the density, the great the pressure that people may place on the land to produce enough food
agricultural density
the ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land
Thomas Malthus
1798 "an essay on the principle of population" book, pessimist view on overpopulation; said humans reproduce geometrically (2,4,8,16) and food produces arithmetically (1,2,3,4), eventually will run out of food
natural increase rate
percentage by which a population grows in a year, births-deaths;
the world is growing at 1.2% (or 80 million) a year; US=.6%; 99% of pop growth is in LDCs
crude birth rate
number of live births per 1000 people
Afghanistan is very high; US=14 per 1000 people
crude death rate
number of deaths per 1000 people
US=8 per 1000 people
total fertility rate
number of children per women during reproductive lifetime;
US=2 children/woman; world average=2.5;
statistical replacement=2.1
stage 1
agrarian preindustrial society (hunting and gathering); a lot of babies, high death rate, low pop growth
stage 2
beginning of industrialization (1800s); high birth rates, decreasing death rates (bc of sanitation, ag industrialization, food improved), population explosion
stage 3
late industrialization; birth rates drop, death rates drop, pop growth peeks and begins to decrease
stage 4
post industrialization (today); low birth rates, low death rates, 0 growth rate
population pyramid
shows age and sex distribution of a population
dependency ratio
the number of people who are too young or too old to work compared to the number of people in their productive years