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Intro to Psych: Chapter 1- Classical Conditioning
Terms in this set (28)
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
Performed pioneering conditioning experiments on dogs. These experiments led to the development of the classical conditioning model of learning.
British philosophers who proposed early theories about how the ideas in memory are formed from a person's experiences
-John Stuart Mill
(Thought ideas were linked by association)
Laws of Association
Those laws thought responsible for holding mental events together in memory. For Aristotle, the laws of association consisted of the laws of contiguity, contrast, similarity, and frequency.
the tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time as being related
The more often two events occur together, the more strongly they will be associated.
The feelings that accompany the association
a learned connection between two ideas or events
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
Neutral stimulus (NS)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning (The bell)
unconditioned response (UR)
In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
conditioned response (CR)
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS) (salivation to the bell)
unconditioned stimulus (US)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response. (Salivation to food)
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response (The tone or bell)
Elicited behavior (respondent behavior)
behavior that is drawn out (elicited) by a preceding stimulus (sneezing due to a particle of dust)
a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
a defensive reaction to a sudden, unexpected stimulus, which involves automatic tightening of skeletal muscles and various hormonal and visceral changes
an inborn tendency to notice and respond to novel or surprising events (large body movement)
the automatic response of jerking one's hand or foot away from a hot or sharp object
direct route from a sensory neuron, to an interneuron, to an effector
Fixed Action Pattern (FAP)
A sequence of behavioral acts that is essentially unchangeable and usually carried to completion once initiated.
External sensory stimulus that triggers a fixed action pattern.
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
An increase in the strength of an elicited behavior following a repeated presentation of the eliciting stimulus
EX: A soldier getting more fearful after each exploding sound
short term habituation
habituation that lasts for a period of time in the order of minutes to a few hours
recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation
Low intensity stimulus
high intensity stimulus
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