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nervous in most situations...sufferers experience persistent anxiety for 6 months and are unable to specify the reasons for the anxiety
convert all your psychological disorders to your body (characterized by the nervous system)
a severe psychological disorder that is characterized by highly disordered thought processes.....a group of disorders that affects the way you feel, think, and even move around...Paranoia is MOST COMMON!!!
substance use disorder
Abuse- when you use drug despite the fact that it causes you problems...use drug as a medication
Dependence- all the things associated with abuse plus withdrawl and tolerance
1.) Tolerance-takes more and more to receive the
2.) Withdrawl-if you stop using a substance cold
turkey, it could make you sick or kill you
Axis I and Axis II Disorders
Axis I-the problem that the person comes to you with
Axis II-a personality disorder (harder to change because it always occurred)
2 types of developmental psychology
longitudinal-watch over a long time
cross sectional-take two groups at the same time
Minnesota Mulitphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
the most widely used self-report personality test...not only used to assess mental health, but it is also a tool for predicting which individuals will make the best job candidates and which career an individual should pursue
Humanists (Maslow's Hierarchy)
means that someone goes through life trying to fulfill needs...believes that human needs must be satisfied in the following sequence: psychological needs, safety, love and belongingness, esteem and self actualization
Be all that you can be!!! The motivation to develop one's full potential as a human being-the highest and most elusive of maslow's proposed needs
an assumption or negative feeling about mental disorders..attached to psychological disorders can provoke prejudice and discrimination towards individuals who are struggling with this problem
Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM)
*Most recent is DSM-IV-TR
-4th edition-text revision
a system of classification that allows us to classify people...classifies people on the basis of five dimensions or axes that take into account the individuals history and highest level of functioning in the previous years...
Axis I-all diagnostic categories except personality disorders and mental
Axis II-personality disorders
Axis III-general medical conditions
Axis IV-enviromental and psychological issues
Axis V-current level of functioning
psychological disorders in which there is a primary disturbance of mood: prolonged emotion that colors the individuals entire emotional state
2 Types: Depressive and Bi-Polar disorders
unipolar mood disorder...mood disorders in which the individual suffers from depression: an unrelenting lack of pleasure in life
bi-polar mood disorder
very low lows (depression) and very high highs (mania); one extreme to another...a mood disorder that is characterized by extreme mood swings that include one or more episodes of mania, an overexcited, unrealistically optimistic state
lost touch with reality; through sensory reception or delusions- A thought that is not in a touch with reality
most common is auditory-hear voices inside your head
*are sensory experience in the absence of real stimuli
false, unusual, and sometimes magical beliefs that are not apart of an individuals culture
*delusions of brandor-when you think that you are someone else
involves fears that are uncontrollable, disproportionate to the actual danger the person might be in, and disruptive of ordinary life
frequent panic attacks (short duration)
*however, a person experiences recurrent, sudden onsets of intense terror, often without warning and no specific cause!
people who have a fear of going into the world
*MAD inhibitors (antidepressant drugs) might be used instead of anti-anxiety drugs
obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
mixture of obsessions and compulsions
*Anxiety disorder in which the individual has anxiety-provoking thoughts that will not go away and urges to perform repetitive ritualistic behaviors to prevent or produce some future situation
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
unusual stressors that most people are not normally subject to
*an anxiety disorder that develops through exposure to a traumatic event that has overwhelmed the person's abilities to cope... ex:) flashbacks in which victim relives the event
the scientific study of how humans change physically, emotionally, morally, and cognitively and socially from conception to death
The famous swiss developmental psychologist, changed the way we think about the development of children's minds
*In his view, children use schemas to make sense of their experience
*Described two processes that describe how people use and respond to their schema: assimilation and accommodation
a mental concept or framework that organizes information and provides structure for interpreting it
In the sensorimotor stage when out of sight is out of mind...to know that something still exists even though it's not present...
*Book definition: Piaget's term for the crucial accomplishment of understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they can not directly be seen, heard, or touched
0-2 years old...when we explore the world and notice we can impact it (the stage where object permanence begins)
2-7 years old..children think more abstractly
*thoughts exceed simple connections
*begin to represent their world with words, images and drawings
*limited symbolic thinking
*can't perform operations or conservation
7-11 years old...grasps the law of conservation when you can look at something with conservation- (belief in the permanence of certain values of objects despite superficial changes) and operations- (mental representations that are reversible)
11-15 years old...it features thinking about things that are not concrete, making predictions, and using logic o come up with hypotheses about the future
thoughts, feelings, and behavior that consists over time and behavior
*a pattern of enduring distinctive thoughts and emotions and behaviors that characterize the way individuals adapt to the world
you will rate your personality the same across situations, though your behavior is different
*combination: part is genetic and part is environment and upbringing
theory-> normal pers.-> abnormal pers.->therapy
founding father of the psychodynamic approach....said that we had 2 motivators sex and aggression...said we develop psychoanalytical sexual experiences...by age 6, personality is set
Psychoanalytical Theory (3 structural parts)
super ego-good in life
id- operates in pleasure principles; want gratification! (devil on shoulder)
ego-mediate between the two
helps us defend against uncomfortability projection-like a projector, you project your feelings on someone else
*reduce anxiety by distorting reality
shift anger from something harder to something easier to displace it on....ex:) get mad at Dr. Mutchnick and go home and argue with roommate
push it down and hide it away....ex:) a young girl was sexually abused by her uncle. As an adult, she can't remember anything about the traumatic experience
go backwards to cope with feelings...ex:) a woman returns home to her mother everytime her and her husband have a big argument
do the opposite of what you're feeling...ex:) a woman who fears her sexual urges becomes a religious zealot
take a vague stimulus and project something inside you
*projective test: to project your own meaning onto a stimulus
Rorschach Inkblot Test
The most famous projective test, developed in 1921 by the Swiss psychiatrist Herman Rorschach....the test consists of 10 cards, half in black and white, half in color. The individual views one at a time.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projective test, developed by Henry Murray and Christiana Morgan in the 1930s is designed to elicit stories that reveal something about an individuals personality.
*shown a series of pictures and asked to create a story leading up to and including events
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